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"Except for nfat5, nfatc1c4 are activated upon a rise in intracellular ca2+, which stimulates the serine/threonine phosphatase activity of calcineurin the ca2+-calcineurin signal is the most important signal for regulating nfat activation, but the signal that leads to ca2+ influx during neural tube differentiation is still unclear."

"Calmodulin is the best studied and prototypical example of the e-f-hand family of ca2+-sensing proteins. In the event of a transient rise in Ca2+, the Ca2+ ion is coordinated in each Ca2+-binding loop of Ca2+–CaM by seven, primarily carboxylate, ligands. The binding of Ca2+ leads to substantial alterations in the interhelical angles within the E–F hands in each domain and dramatically changes the two domains of CaM to produce more ‘open’ conformations"

"This suggests that a calcium wave that reaches the soma and triggers a massive long lasting regenerative calcium release in the nucleus may activate CAM kinase IV and gene transcription in the absence[MISSING/INVALID CREDENTIALS: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"

"Binding of four calcium ions induces a conformational change in calmod- ulin which can then activate a large number of proteins."

"Treatment with igf-1 or insulin and dexamethasone mobilizes intracellular calcium, activates the ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, and induces the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nf-atc1."