"Accurate fit of restorations is extremely essential to achieve acceptable longevity. xref The presence of discrepancies at the crown margins favors plaque accumulation and microleakage, dissolution of cement, leading to secondary caries and periodontal disease. xref Multiple studies have assessed the marginal fit and adaptation of CAD-CAM restorations. xref It is suggested that the marginal accuracy of restorations made with CAD-CAM systems may be influenced by the designing software’s and parameters. xref "
"Sixty PEEK posts were milled from a prefabricated PEEK blank by using a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system and divided into 3 groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: acid etching by using 98% sulfuric acid (AE); airborne-particle abrasion by using 50-μm Al 2 O 3 (AA); nonthermal plasma treatment (NTP); in addition, PEEK posts (n=15) received no treatment (NT) and served as a control."
"The use of laser welding on milled cylinders allows for, in time compatible with immediate loading, manufacturing a framework with the same precision fit than the CAD-CAM titanium framework and yields a more accurate fit than the frameworks produced with the lost-wax technique [ xref ]."
"This finishing differs not only between conventional systems for the manufacturing of metal frameworks obtained by casting, but also between different CAD-CAM technologies, the number of axes for milling machines or characteristics and the state of the burs used for milling structures [ xref ]."
"Seventy specimens of a CAD-CAM PICN were divided into 7 groups (n=10): no treatment (control), hydrofluoric acid etching for 20 seconds (HF20), 60 seconds (HF60), 120 seconds (HF120), HF20 + phosphoric acid for 60 seconds and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, HF60 + PH, and HF120 + PH."
"A virtual prototype of the modular attachment was designed using CAD-CAM technology and then a rapid prototype was manufactured using fused deposition modelling (FDM)-a type of 3D printer technology, to confirm that it could be easily inserted on to the existing snap-fit arrangements of the MFAB."
"The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cement space in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) crowns of different materials and correlate 2D measurements of cement space with their corresponding 3D values (volume of cement space) by using microcomputed tomography (μCT) analysis of regions of interest."
"Eight patients were treated, differentiating two groups according to the technique: four patients were treated through standard surgery with resection and primary reconstruction of the defect with calvarial graft, and four patients underwent resection and primary reconstruction through virtual surgical planning (VSP), cutting guides, STL models developed with CAD-CAM technology and PSI (titanium or Polyether-ether-ketone)."
"With improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques, CAM-aided methods, such as a subtractive milling or additive three-dimensional (3D) printing processes, are alternatives to the conventional method of complete denture fabrication [ xref , xref ]."
"The new available technologies, such as the intraoral scanners and the CAD-CAM technologies, together with the availability of prosthetic materials render the immediate-loading protocol [ xref ] possible, with a remarkable decrease in procedure times, improved patient satisfaction and suitable esthetic results [ xref , xref ]."
"This technique presented utilized a CAD-CAM surgical template that was designed with the purpose of improving accuracy in finding the fractured part with minimal osteotomy, allowing for simultaneous placement of a new implant in the same site, with additional bone graft, utilizing the same template."
"Metal post-and-cores had slightly better adaptation than the CAD-CAM composite resin post-and-cores; however, the part-digital fabrication workflow of CAD-CAM composite resin post-and-cores provided adaptation parameters within a clinically acceptable range and is less time consuming."
"The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the material dependent force-damping behavior of implant-supported crowns fabricated from different computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials luted to implant abutments under different conditions."
"Further studies should be performed in order to investigate if surface conditioning before glazing increases the bond strength between the resin-composite CAD-CAM and the sealant, after aging procedures because resin-composite are expected to be hydrophilic [ xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
"Within the limits of this study, the results showed that this new technique of personalized bone regeneration (CBR) with the use of custom 3D titanium meshes manufactured with CAD-CAM technology represents a safe, encouraging and predictable alternative for the regeneration of various bone defects."
"The variations in the outcomes observed in screw-retained CAD-CAM restorations, depend on the technique used to measurement the marginal fit: SEM, stereomicroscope, optic microscope, scanning laser microscope or photogrammetry [ xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
"An advantage of fabricating structures using CAD-CAM systems is the lesser need for the retouching and adapting of the internal surfaces of the metal framework by the laboratory technician, reducing the manual finishing steps on the inner and outer surfaces of the structure, avoiding its possible deterioration and improving the quality of the final touch of the prosthesis [ xref , xref ]."
"To evaluate the flexural properties of computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) milled posts fabricated from the experimental fibre-reinforced composite disks in different fibre direction, and to compare the flexural properties of the CAD-CAM milled posts to those of commercial prefabricated posts, RelyX and FRC PostecPlus."
"Co-occurrence and relative normalized citation analysis of keywords highlighted several research interests, such as comparison studies between LD and zirconia, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques, and the performance of complete coverage LD restorations."
"Furthermore, the postproduction swelling assay indicated a lower swelling degree for the structures printed in RCPhC1-NB/SH at each writing speed and concentration compared with RCPhC1-MA, thereby resulting in less swelling-related deformations and thus a superior CAD-CAM mimicry ( xref )."
"All-ceramic restoration has become popular and plays a significant role in contemporary restorative dentistry as a result of modern technology of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and the advancement of ceramic nanomaterials, that are capable of providing aesthetic and load-bearing restorations ( xref , xref )."
"Two materials from the acrylic resin group, Jet denture repair acrylic and Duralay, showed higher pushout forces, indicating a better bond with Lucitone 199 CAD-CAM denture base material compared with other tested materials, including composite resin with bonding agent (EZ PickUp, Quick Up, and Triad gel) and composite resin without bonding agent (Chairside)."
"However, for computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD-CAM) fabricated crowns, such as those fabricated from monolithic zirconia, additional principles, including the quality of the finish line form, line angle form, and the occlusal surface preparation design (anatomical, semi-anatomical, or non-anatomical), become essential [ xref , xref ]."
"Electronic (PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar) and manual searches were conducted for articles published from January 2010 to December 2020 to identify relevant studies evaluating the effect of different finish line preparations (chamfer, deep chamfer, shoulder, rounded shoulder) on the marginal and internal adaptation of cobalt-chromium metal alloy copings fabricated by using CAD-CAM technology."
"To simplify and standardize the approach, we described the use of a computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD-CAM) template for TMJ surgery in 2019, yet several modifications have been proposed to this promising technology. [ xref ] Most of the described modifications require 3D imaging (e.g., CT, cone beam CT, MRI) of the corresponding TMJ and the surrounding tissue, in addition to an optical three-dimensional (3D) scan of the face."
"This report focuses a defect comprising the complete mandible due to osteonecrosis, including both condyles, that required bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction with complete mandibular corpus using a computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing(CAD-CAM) planning to harvest a scapula chimeric free flap combined with plate including bilateral alloplastic TMJ prosthesis."
"Disk-shaped specimens (10 × 2 mm) of 3 different CAD-CAM PMMAs, AvaDent (AV); Merz M-PM (M-PM); Polident (Poli), and a conventional heat-polymerized PMMA (Vynacron) (CV) (n=21) were divided into 3 different surface treatment groups (n=7): conventional laboratory polishing (CLP), polishing with acrylic resin polisher kit (PK), and a surface sealant (Palaseal) (SSC)."
"The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the retentive behavior of implant overdentures and the loss of retention from clip wear when used with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fabricated bar attachments from cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), zirconia (ZrO 2 ), and BioHPP to identify the optimal material in terms of minimal loss of retention and minimal wear."
"Also, it suggests further research to improve the adhesion milling Lava™ Ultimate by the action of the diamond burs because this process increased the roughness of all CAD-CAM ceramic and composite resin blocks [ xref ], therefore, better performance of this interface could be expected in a real clinical situation."
"The focused question was "Do milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching affect the flexural strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics?" For the meta-analysis, flexural strength and Ra data on milling, fitting adjustment, and HF etching versus control (polishing) were analyzed globally."
"Nevertheless, recent evidence points out that conventional manufacturing techniques could still be considered as effective and reliable for the fabrication of precise prostheses as CAD-CAM technologies [ xref ], delivering marginal discrepancies bellow 120 μm, which is a clinically acceptable threshold."
"In-office full digital workflow has been incorporated in daily routine, from intraoral 3D scanning to chairside CAD-CAM of restorations, because it is time saving, it reduces the quantity of patient visits to the office, and eliminates the need of a dental technician ( xref , xref )."
"Alumina airborne particle abrasion creates a rough pitted surface, whereas, hydrofluoric acid etching removes filler particles leaving behind a honeycomb-like appearance. xref Some studies xref , xref , xref reported superior bond strength to CAD-CAM resin composites following airborne particle abrasion; others xref , xref reported an equivalent bond between particle abrasion and hydrofluoric acid etching or an improved bond with particle abrasion and hydrofluoric acid etching combined."
"Full-factorial design was employed for experimental testing, considering the following three factors: (a) inner crown material ‒ technology (zirconia ‒ CAD-CAM; metal-alloy ‒ SLS; metal-alloy ‒ SLM); (b) tooth type (canine or molar); (c) wet vs. dry conditions (i.e. either with or without artificial saliva)."
"Maxillary and mandibular edentulous models fabricated from cobalt-chromium alloy were scanned, and 2-mm-thick denture bases were designed and fabricated by using 4 fabrication techniques and materials: CAD-CAM milled (CCM), 3D printed (3DP), injection molded (IM), and compression molded (CM)."
"To simulate different clinical situations, abutments were divided into 3 groups: 10 abutments (group GOS) received artificial gingiva and were scanned with an open system intraoral scanner, while 10 abutments with (group GIS) and 10 abutments without artificial gingiva (group IS) were scanned with an intraoral scanner within an integrated CAD-CAM system."
"In addition to principles of tooth preparation required for conventional restorations, factors such as a rough, irregular, or stepped finish line and a non-anatomical occlusal surface that may lead to an increased marginal gap must be considered when preparing teeth for CAD-CAM crowns [ xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
"Five more test groups (n= 10) were light-cured in a natural tooth mold from three sites (buccal, palatal and occlusal) under a 9.5 mm thick nanohybrid resin composite CAD-CAM endocrown (Lava Ultimate A2 LT), for different irradiation times: 90 seconds per site, 40 seconds per site, 30 seconds per site, 20 seconds per site and 10 seconds per site."
"Retention was provided by Memotain retainers which were fabricated digitally using CAD-CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) technology in the first group and by five-stranded retainers which were fabricated manually using a conventional bending method in the second group."
"Aims: 1) to develop a novel quantitative-statistical framework (QSF) for the evaluation and design of the insoles’ offloading performance through in-shoe pressure measurement; 2) to compare the pressure-relieving efficiency of traditional shape-based total contact customised insoles (TCCI) with a novel CAD-CAM approach by the QSF."
"Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology provides for a 3-D-printed template that allows for osteotomy preparation in the mouth as per the virtual plan on the software where the depth, angulation, and axial inclination of the implant are planned as per the restorative needs of the case."
"The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of supporting conditions and the use of an anchor microscrew on the seating and functional stabilization of a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) implant surgical guide with a completely limiting design."
"The idea of rebuilding the TMJ in function and improving the facial esthetic has been addressed superficially in the literature; however, the current technology for manufacturing a TMJ prosthesis using CAD-CAM to recover function makes it possible to integrate the esthetic recovery of face, mainly in patients under complex TMJ disease."
"It is reported that parameters specific to the milling and machining process including number and dimensions of burs, axis of milling and machining type (soft or hard) may effect the fit and adaptation of CAD-CAM restorations. xref , xref A three or four axis machine may not be capable of producing undercuts, therefore show low accuracy and marginal fit. xref Furthermore, milling of partially stabilized zirconia in dry conditions has shown better restorative accuracy then wet milling. xref However, in a study by Kirsch et al, restoration fabricated with a 4-axis CEREC milling machine revealed comparable fit outcomes to restoration made with 5-axis milling machines. xref Therefore a controversy exists in these findings."
"Three monolithic lithium disilicate crowns were fabricated per participant by using 3 different CAD-CAM systems (intraoral scanners, CAD software, and milling machines): CEREC group (CEREC Bluecam, CEREC AC, CEREC MC); EZIS group (EZIS PO, EZIS VR, EZIS HM); and TRIOS group (TRIOS 3, EXO-CAD, ARUM-4X)."
"For an implant restoration it is possible to choose between three types of abutments: stock (not customizable) commercial abutment; partially customized by milling but standard machined connection; and complete customized by casting or by using computer-aided design- computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology (milled or sintered) [ xref ]."
"Resin composite crowns can be easily adjusted and polished chairside and can have occlusal or proximal contacts added with light-cured composite resin. xref – xref Although the reported biaxial flexural strength of a representative CAD-CAM resin composite material was nearly half of that of more commonly utilized glass ceramic materials; xref the former has shown a higher resistance to fatigue loading than the latter. xref Additionally, CAD-CAM resin composite materials have lower wear than glass ceramics. xref These favorable mechanical properties have allowed CAD-CAM resin composite materials to be used for full-coverage posterior crowns."
"With the explosion in data amount and availability and the technical means to effectively lever them, this trend towards digital dentistry is accelerating: Digital dentistry is nowadays much more than computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM), it entails diagnostics, decision-making, treatment conduct and re-evaluation as well as lifelong management of patients’ oral health."
"However, PEEK is a promising material because of its high biocompatibility, good mechanical properties, good wear resistance, low plaque affinity, and high bond strength with veneering composites/luting cements [ xref ], although, few studies have assessed this material for CAD-CAM prostheses in clinical settings [ xref , xref , xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
"No mechanical removal of parts or procuring of tubes etc. as demonstrated in other studies Figure Legend Various ways in which an orthopedic theatre may witness aerosols generation Illustration demonstrating mechanism by which the augmented filtration system functions to block the aerosols generated in the operating room Flowchart of the process of designing the mould for filter placement using 3D printing technology CAD-CAM design of 3D printed template (A) and Helmet construct (B) Aerosol Generator (A), Particle counter (B), Test results of Filtration efficiency (C) Particle Filtration efficiency test results."
"The need for improved esthetics led to the development of metal-free abutments, so materials such as ceramics and polymers were used for the manufacturing of implant abutments.[ xref xref ] A common problem that occurred in implant-supported restorations with either metal or zirconia core was chipping of porcelain, which was reduced by the introduction of newer resin-based restorative materials and CAD-CAM technology."
"Many CAD-CAM systems are available in the market for chairside digital impression and prosthesis fabrication.[ xref xref xref xref ] Different IOSs by the numbers of company are increasing that offer user-friendly, perceived as pleasant for the patient[ xref xref ] and time efficient[ xref xref ]"
"A CAD-CAM reconstruction was planned with a plate extended by bilateral individual TMJ prosthesis, individual fossa components and combined with a composite free flap originating from the subscapular vessel system including scapula(circumflex subscapular artery) for reconstruction of the mandibular corpus which was osteotomized in three segments with a resection guide, the parascapular skin paddle (descending branch of circumflex subscapular artery) for compensation of the soft tissue deficiency of the cervical skin and latissimus dorsi muscle(thoracodorsal artery) for the inner mucosal lining and intraoral reconstruction."
"Even without the use of an intraoral scanner, post-and-cores can be obtained by using a part-digital fabrication workflow that requires pattern modeling (direct, indirect, or impression); however, studies on the adaptation of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite resin post-and-cores in comparison with metal cast post-and-cores are sparse."
"Eighty monolithic CAD-CAM all-ceramic surveyed crowns were prepared and divided into 4 groups - Group CR, Composite resin material as a control; Group LDS, Lithium disilicate based material; Group ZIPS, zirconia-material (IPS ZirCAD); and Group ZLHT, zirconia- material (CeramillZolidht+)."
"To evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the water contact angle (WCA), surface roughness (SR), and microhardness (MH) of resin-matrix computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) ceramics after different surface treatments (conventional polishing or 2 different surface sealants)."
"The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate completely digital workflows for managing the esthetic outcome through the production of trial restorations with 2 different technologies: stereolithography apparatus (SLA 3D) and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)."
"Five 3-dimensional (3D) finite element models of an edentulous mandible with SIO were designed as follows: model M with a titanium retentive element for ball attachment, model P with a PEEK retentive element, model S with a silicone resilient liner retentive element, model T with a thermoplastic acrylic resin retentive element made from a CAD-CAM material, and model A with a polyacetal resin retentive element."
"Twenty-four preparations were 3D-printed for each veneer and crown and divided into four groups (n = 6/group): (a) Acrylic resin (Acrílico Marche); (b) Bisacrylic resin (Protemp 4); (c) PMMA computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) (Vipiblock); and (d) 3D-printed resin for provisional restorations (Raydent C&B for temporary crown and bridge)."
"A specific software that allows the transition from the two-dimensional previsualization of the smile to a three-dimensional volumetric study and then a CAD-CAM processing for the realization of the prosthetic product were used, as also described by Coachman et al. in 2017 [ xref ]."
"Even though all the CAD-CAM polymer-based materials marketed in blocks tested in the present study satisfy the requirements of ISO standard for polymer-based materials, their flexural resistance differs significantly."