"Here we report that hyper-proliferative human PAH PAVSMC have elevated secretion of TGF-β1 and, to a lesser extent, Activin A, but not Gremlin 1, and significantly reduced Ser 465/467 -Smad2 and Ser 423/425 -Smad3 phosphorylation compared to controls."
"Protein phosphorylation of SMAD 2 and SMAD 3 as well as SMAD 2, SMAD 3, and SMAD 4 levels was measured using western blot analysis in the DFAT cells incubated with or without (vehicle control) 5ng."
"CX-4945 treatment had no significant effect on TGFbeta1 induced phosphorylation of S465/467 Smad2 and S423/425 Smad3 (XREF_FIG)."
"In the present study, we observed that the TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 and the TGF-beta1-induced increase in alpha-SMA production were partially dependent on Smad2 and Smad3 and were reversed by knockdown of both Smad2 and Smad3."
"Furthermore, xenografts with Stat3 knockdown displayed increased Smad3 transcriptional activity, increased Smad2 phosphorylation and decreased Smad7 expression compared with control xenografts in vivo."
"The protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), type 1 collagen (Col1), Smad2, Smad3, phosphorylated Smad2 (p-smad2), p-smad3 and Smad7 were assessed by Western blot analysis."