"In the present study the function of Ash/Grb-2 was investigated by microinjecting cells with an anti-Ash antibody. The antibody abolished both S phase entry and the reorganization of actin assembly to ruffle formation upon stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). On the other hand, anti-Ash antibody had no effect on S phase entry or actin stress fiber formation induced by either serum or lysophosphatidic acid. Since the induction of DNA synthesis, ruffle induction and stress fiber formation involve a function of Ras, Rac activation and Rho activation respectively, the findings strongly suggest that Ash plays a critical role in the signaling of both pathways downstream from growth factor receptors to Ras and Rac. Consistent with this, Ash co-precipitated with EGF receptor from EGF-stimulated cells."