"The expression of JunD colocalised with pSmad 3 in fibrotic skin and silencing of Smad 3 or Smad 4 by siRNA prevented the induction of JunD by TGFbeta......The expression of JunD was analysed by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. "
"Second, silencing of SMAD protein levels using short interfering RNAs revealed that TGFbeta-induced activation of the endogenous gadd45beta gene required SMAD3 and SMAD4 but not SMAD2"
"We have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-regulated Sma-Mad (Smad) protein 3 and Smad4 proteins transactivate the apolipoprotein C-III promoter in hepatic cells"
"Previously we have reported that the intracellular effectors of TGF-beta, Smad3 and Smad4, functionally cooperate with Sp1 to activate the human p21 promoter in hepatoma HepG2 cells."
"Furthermore, expression of dominant negative Smad3 or Smad4 in cells decreased or abolished the stimulation of beta(5) promoter activity by TGF-beta. Smad4 mutant also inhibited the up-regulation of surface beta(5) level by TGF-beta. Thus, TGF-beta increases expression of the integrin beta(5) gene by mechanisms involving Sp1/Sp3 and Smad transcription factors."
"activin A, TGF-beta1, and bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4) bind to their respective receptor, a regulatory Smad is phosphorylated and becomes associated with Smad4, the common Smad, and the resulting complex translocates to the nucleus to regulate transcription"