"Meanwhile, the immunofluorescence staining result also showed that TGF-beta1 increased the expression of pSmad3; on the contrary, curcumin decreased the expression of pSmad3 and inhibited nuclear translocation of pSmad3 (XREF_FIG)."
"Western-blot assay also showed that TGF-beta1 treatment increased pSmad3 levels in whole and nuclear extracts; and knockdown of PARP1 by siRNA or inhibition of PARP activity by 3AB or PJ34 prevented TGF-beta1-induced pSmad3 increase in both whole and nuclear extracts (XREF_FIG)."
"Treatment of TGF-beta1 further increased the expressions of TGF-beta1 and Smad3, whereas the TGF-beta1 inhibitors group exhibited lower expressions of TGF-beta1 and Smad3 than those of the model and TGF-beta1 group (all P < 0.05)."
"The levels of phospho-SMAD3, which were increased by TGF-beta1 treatment, were decreased by eupatolide treatment in a time dependent manner (XREF_FIG)."
"TGF-beta1 also induced Smad3, miR-192 and p-Smad3 expression, but suppressed E-cadherin expression."
"Confocal immunofluoresence assay with anti-pSmad3 antibody (used to detect levels of Smad3 when phosphorylated at Ser423/425) showed that TGF-beta1 treatment increased pSmad3 levels in VSMCs, especially in the nucleus; and pretreatment with 3AB or PJ34 prevented the TGF-beta1-induced increase (XREF_FIG)."
"NOF-CAF cells ' expression of p-SMAD2 and p-SMAD3 in response to TGF-beta1 demonstrated intact TGF-beta signaling."
"TGF-beta1 increased the invasive ability of JEG-3 cells and the expression levels of Smad2 and Smad3; hence, TGF-beta1 promotes the invasion of JEG-3 probably by activating Smad2 and Smad3."
"As shown in XREF_FIG, western blotting results demonstrated that TGF-beta1 significantly increased the levels of Smad-2 phosphorylation and moderately enhanced Smad-3 phosphorylation."
"The results showed that TGF-beta1 induced the expression of CTGF, COL I, p-Smad3 and Smad7 in a time dependent manner."