"The mutations in the BRAF gene increase the kinase activity and, in turn, the constitutive stimulation of MAPK2 and MAPK3."
"Pak2 and Pak4 further activate two Raf kinases, B-Raf and C-Raf, leading to ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) activation, which all seem to be necessary for EC lumen formation."
"It was anticipated that expression of the truncated and constitutively activated form of BRAF would activate the ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen activated kinases (ERK1/2) so near-adjacent tissue sections to those stained for BRAF were also stained with an antibody against the phosphorylated and activated form of ERK1/2."
"In this situation, markedly diminished levels of BRAF and CRAF accompanied using shRNAs, reducing ERK1 and or ERK2 levels."
"In the neuroendocrine cell lines, BON (lymph node metastasis of a pancreatic NEN) and INS-1 (a rat insulinoma cell line), over expression of Rap1 and B-Raf activated MAPK ERK-2 and ERK-dependent transcription factor Elk-1 has been noted xref ."