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KRAS affects BRAF
1 1 | 279 11
1 1 | 141 11
sparser
"In humans, serrated colorectal cancers are associated with either BRAF or KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In agreement with others ( xref - xref ), we found that KRAS mutations were highly associated with lung-only metastases and BRAF mutations with peritoneal and nodal-only metastases."
sparser
"Additionally, we showed that KRAS or BRAF mutation could be associated with improved prognosis in MSI-positive colorectal cancers."
reach
"Treatment of KRAS * MEFs with YZ0711 also resulted in decreased RAS bound BRAF, suggesting YZ0711 can disrupt RAS signaling (XREF_FIG)."
sparser
"Since mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes are associated with resistance to therapy with anticancer drugs targeting the EGF receptor pathway, the analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutational status has become an important tool in the clinical management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer."
sparser
"The validity of the findings are however strengthened by the expected associations of KRAS and BRAF mutations with clinicopathological factors, e.g. KRAS and BRAF mutations being mutually exclusive [ xref ], the significant associations between BRAF mutation, MSI [ xref , xref , xref ] and mucinous phenotype [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"Similarly, it completely suppressed the effects of exogenous KRAS G12C expression on KRAS-GTP levels, KRAS-BRAF interaction, and ERK signaling ( xref )."
sparser
"Importantly, a MEK inhibitor (U0126) had no impact on KRAS G12V −BRAF or KRAS G12V −CRAF interactions (Supplementary Fig.  xref , d)."
sparser
"BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese CRC patients."
sparser
"Recent molecular advances have shown two molecular phenotypes of TSA: one associated with BRAF mutations and the other with KRAS mutations."
| 16
sparser
"However, mutations in K-RAS , b-Raf , and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies ( xref )."
sparser
"This analysis evaluated the association of K-ras, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations with tumor resistance to panitumumab alone."
sparser
"BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy."
sparser
"There are some evidence that PIK3CA mutations associated with activation of KRAS- BRAF mutation occurring in colorectal cancers ( xref )."
sparser
"Moreover, mutations in KRAS and other genes such as BRAF and PIK3CA are also associated with worse survival [ xref ]."
sparser
"We studied the presence of CIMP phenotype, MLH1 promoter methylation and MSI phenotype and their association with the presence of KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the series of polyps."
sparser
"In the patient group with wild-type KRAS , the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival."
sparser
"Stage; grade; obstruction; and BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations are strongly associated with sidedness."
sparser
"In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutations in KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to treatment with monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of EGFR (Di Nicolantonio et al, xref ; Lievre et al, xref ; Sartore-Bianchi et al, xref )."
sparser
"Our findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of CCA in Chinese population and provide new potential targets for future therapeutic treatments of the disease."
BRAF binds TP53 and KRAS. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"TP53, KRAS , and BRAF mutations were additionally independently associated with poor prognosis, although the association with BRAF and KRAS was restricted to MSI-negative tumours."
sparser
"CRC molecular features including MSI, CIMP and mutations in BRAF , KRAS and TP53 were not associated with age-adjusted cRTL or cRTL:nRTL ratios (multivariate P>0.115 for all comparisons) (Table xref )."
sparser
"However, p53, B-Raf V600E and K-Ras G13D proved dispensable for drug’s cytotoxic activity, thus rendering 3-BrPA a powerful therapeutic tool for the successful management of urothelial bladder tumors carrying either wild-type or mutant p53, B-Raf or K-Ras oncogenic forms."
sparser
"TP53, BRAF, and KRAS mutations are associated with differential lncRNA expression."
sparser
"For example, P53, KRAS, or BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer did not associate with bevacizumab-chemotherapy treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer [ xref ]."
sparser
"In multivariable analysis incorporating known clinicopathological prognostic factors, we showed that low overall mutation burden and mutations in KRAS, BRAF , and TP53 were independently associated with decreased relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer treated with curative intent."
sparser
"Furthermore, mutations in p53, K-Ras and BRAF are associated with the neoplastic changes of IECs during the sporadic colon cancer development; BRAF and K-Ras mutations have been considered as prognostic markers for MSI ( xref )."
BRAF binds EGFR and KRAS. 6 / 6
| 6
sparser
"In addition, activation of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR, such as mutations in KRAS or BRAF, have also been associated with progression of CRC and subsequent resistance to EGFR mAbs."
sparser
"KRAS mutation, present in 30%-40% of tumors, does not appear to be an independent negative prognostic factor, in that patients in the control arms of studies of EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer demonstrate similar outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. xref - xref Interestingly, the V600E mutation in BRAF, another gene in the KRAS signal transduction pathway, is also associated with nonresponse to EGFR-targeted therapy based upon early data. xref - xref Subset analyses from the CAIRO-2, CRYSTAL, and PETACC-3 trials suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation, unlike KRAS mutation, is associated with poor prognosis which may confound interpretation of its predictive value. xref - xref BRAF mutations are present in approximately 5% to 10% of colorectal tumors and appear to be mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. xref , xref , xref , xref BRAF mutation may be more common in patients with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which itself has been associated with a positive prognosis, highlighting the complexity of these molecular pathways. xref "
sparser
"This observation may have clinical significance for MEDI-565, especially in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where tumors bearing KRAS or BRAF mutations have been associated with reduced response rates to treatment with the EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. xref Thus, although EGFR antibody-targeting therapy frequently encounters lower response rates in metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring these mutations, the patients may respond to MEDI-565 treatment."
sparser
"The RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is a major signaling pathway that triggers cell proliferation upon EGFR ligand binding by activating the KRAS and BRAF genes."
sparser
"Although activating mutations of BRAF (BRAF V600E ) are found only in a small proportion of colon cancers, this poses a great challenge in the quest for a better outcome of the patients, in that BRAF mutations, like mutations in KRAS, are associated with resistance of colon cancer to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"Murine models of NSCLC have been described in which expression of mutated forms of K-ras, Egfr , or BRaf in the lung leads to the development of lung adenocarcinomas or pre-malignant lesions [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and NRAS. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend towards shorter overall survival compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
sparser
"Studies have identified several genetic alterations, including KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, which are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR agents."
sparser
"KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, but EGFR mutations are not (Fig.  xref c)."
sparser
"At present, KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF mutations are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic CRC, both in surgical and nonsurgical patients."
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend toward shorter duration of benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
ERK binds BRAF and KRAS. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"Based on our findings of a distinct ACF histology that is related to the underlying oncogenic alterations, we hypothesized that KRAS or BRAF mutations may be associated with differential ERK-1/2 activation."
sparser
"This is consistent with reports that primary mutations of BRAF and KRAS that increase ERK activity are associated with gefitinib resistance ( xref )."
sparser
"Interestingly, other work supports our general conclusions, in that IQGAP1 is known to directly interact directly with k-Ras, b-Raf, and Erk [ xref , xref , xref ]; thus serving as a scaffolding protein to promote Erk activity downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Ras activation."
sparser
"Importantly, the presence of either B-raf or K-ras mutation was marginally associated with the presence of cytoplasmic ERK expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.097), suggesting that the proportion of cytoplasmic ERK positivity is marginally higher in the mutated cases when compared to the unmutated ones."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any correlation between the molecular profile and clinical outcome of pTNM stage I CRCs and whether mutations in KRAS , BRAF , NRAS , and PIK3CA genes are associated with histopathological features in this group of tumors."
sparser
"It was widely recognized that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are significantly associated with a low response rate xref ."
sparser
"We optimized a 14-amplicon NGS panel to assess, in a consecutive cohort of 219 patients affected by mCRC, the presence and clinico-pathological associations of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected for diagnostics and research at the time of diagnosis."
sparser
"Of them, 36 patients did not exhibit mutations and 19 patients had one or more mutations: 16 patients had KRAS mutations (on exon 2: 14 patients and on exon 3-4: 2 patients), 1 NRAS mutation, 2 BRAF mutation and 4 PIK3CA mutations, associated with KRAS mutations in all of them (on exon 2: 3 patients and on exon 3-4: 1 patient)."
BRAF binds PBK and KRAS. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Molecular analysis of sporadic CRCs in Group 2 showed that diffuse TOPK expression was associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations (p<0.001) and with poor outcome in patients with either mutation in univariate and multivariate analysis ( P =0.017)."
sparser
"In sporadic CRC, diffuse TOPK expression was associated with the presence of KRAS or BRAF mutation, underlining the involvement of TOPK in ERK/MAPK signalling."
sparser
"As a MAPKK-like protein, it is a downstream molecule of KRAS and BRAF , both of which are associated with diffuse expression of TOPK ( xref )."
| 3
sparser
"CFC syndrome is associated with mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2 , and KRAS [ xref ; xref ; xref ; xref ]."
sparser
"CFC is associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2."
sparser
"In landmark publications, Rodriguez-Viciana et al. [ xref ] and Niihori et al. [ xref ] showed that genetic mutations in genes participating with MEK signaling, including KRAS , BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 are associated with CFC syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, we validated the previously reported association of CIMP with BRAF mutations, MSI, and KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In MSI colorectal carcinomas, KRAS mutations are inversely associated to BRAF mutations, the latter being the most frequent [30,31] ."
BRAF binds EZH2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression."
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF genotypes were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression in our series."
BRAF binds ERBB2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Oncogenic mutations in the KRAS [ 1 ], ERBB2 [ 3 ] and BRAF [ 4 ] have been frequently associated with AVC."
sparser
"Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is often associated with k-ras, b-raf, and ERBB2 mutations, while TP53 is rarely mutated [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and CRC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, it has been demonstrated that BRAF and KRAS mutations are frequently associated with CRC and influence prognosis ( xref )."
sparser
"In conclusion, by incorporation of CMS classification, novel subtype-specific prognostic associations of the extensively studied KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations in primary CRC were indicated."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and DCR. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Presence of K-RAS or B-RAF mutations were not statistically significantly associated with 8-week DCR ( P= 0.725 and P= 0.307, respectively)."
sparser
"In the patients with wild-type KRAS , the presence of the BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced DCR ( P  = 0.002; Table  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MRC1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored."
sparser
"The association of BRAF , KRAS and MMR individually with prognosis has been studied in colon cancers by ourselves xref – xref and others xref , xref , xref – xref ."
BRAF binds CTNNB1 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations."
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations, in keeping with the notion that CTNNB1 mutations are early events in CRC carcinogenesis. xref Conversely, our data confirm that the occurrence of SMAD4 mutations (2.1%) is a late event. xref In fact, in our study 64.3% of SMAD4 mutations occurred in combination with other alterations."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and NRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, secondary resistance develops in all patients and is associated with the development of secondary KRAS , NRAS , EGFR or BRAF mutations ( xref , xref , xref )."
sparser
"We then exploited the GDSC database and found that in a variety of cancer cells, mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF were associated with resistance to common EGFR inhibitors like Gefitinib and Afatinib, in spite of some mutations that did not pass false discovery rate (FDR), possibly due to complexity of genetic background throughout so many cancer types ( xref ; xref )."
BRAF binds TP53, KRAS, and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations."
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with 92% KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations (0, 4, and 31% respectively)."
BRAF binds STK11, EGFR, and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We used combined data from previous papers ( xref ; xref ) and from Sanger institute's databases ( xref ) to analyse association of LKB1 mutations with mutations of KRAS , BRAF , and EGFR ."
sparser
"Association of LKB1 mutations with K-Ras , B-Raf , and EGFR mutations in NSCLC."
AKT binds BRAF, KRAS, and cre. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral RCAS/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to Nestin expressing neural progenitor cells inInk4a/Arf lox/lox mice in vivo ."
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral replication-competent avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat, splice acceptor (RCAS)/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in Ink4a/Arf(lox/lox) mice in vivo."
BRAF binds KRAS, mtnN, and mcrC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In conclusion, our data suggest that mutations in KRAS and BRAF are associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS and BRAF were associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
MAPK binds BRAF and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Strikingly, paradoxical pathway activation was even more pronounced in the presence of KRAS or NRAS mutations, and this increased MAP kinase activity was associated with BRAF inhibitor-induced growth stimulation of KRAS - or NRAS -mutant MM cell lines ( xref )."
BRAF binds TP73 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The association between the expression of TAp73 and the presence/absence of K-Ras and B-Raf mutations in response to cetuximab supports their possible apoptotic function and helps to understand the action mechanism of this drug."
BRAF binds KRAS and mtnN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The same analysis in the total group of cetuximab-treated patients showed a significant association of the KRAS (HR 1.3; p = 0.044 for PFS and HR 1.5; p = 0.0065 for OS) and BRAF (HR 2.0; p = 0[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds KRAS and CRCs. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC, the MSI phenotype is characterized by the accumulation of numerous mutations across the genome, mainly in microsatellite sequences, due to a defective mismatch repair system. xref Both MSI‐positive advanced CRCs and precursors of MSI‐H CRCs are closely associated with BRAF or KRAS mutations and high levels of genomic methylation (CIMP‐high). xref , xref However, whether the same theory can be applied to EGC, which has been shown to preferentially develop into hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), has not been proven."
BRAF binds KRAS and SSP. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"According to a recent expert panel, however, SSP is mostly associated with BRAF mutation and the KRAS mutation is linked to TSA [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and MGMT. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Tumour budding was not associated with KRAS, BRAF, MGMT or CIMP, but was correlated inversely with MSI-H (P = 0.0049)."
BRAF binds KRAS and CHD5. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In fact, other mechanisms have been suggested in other types of tumors, as CHD5 mutation or methylation is associated with KRAS or BRAF mutation in ovarian cancer [ xref ], and CHD5 expression correlates with MYCN amplification in neuroblastoma [ xref , xref ]."
MEK binds BRAF and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"However, in a surprising development, two articles report that germline mutations in the KRAS, BRAF, and MEK1/2 genes are associated with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and SSA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"As reported in Spring et al, BRAF mutation was strongly associated with MVHPs and SSAs and KRAS mutation was associated with GCHPs and TVAs [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and MMUT. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Similarly, rLGALS9 reduced colony formation in all KRAS mut BRAF WT cell lines, but not in KRAS WT BRAF mut cells ( xref )."
BRAF binds PDLIM7 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Typically, LMP tumors are associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations."
BRAF binds KRAS and MAP2K1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Results herein demonstrate that transformation of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by oncogenic forms of KRAS, BRAF or MEK1 was associated with a marked increase in β-catenin/TCF4 and c-MYC promoter transcriptional activities and mRNA levels of c-Myc , Axin2 and Lef1 ."
BRAF binds KRAS and CS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although the vast majority of patients with CS harbor HRAS mutations, very recent studies have indicated that a CS phenotype may occasionally be associated with specific mutations of BRAF [ xref ] or KRAS [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and panC1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Knock-down of IQGAP1 slightly decreased the interaction between K-Ras and B-Raf in PANC1 cells ( Fig. 4 C), although the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not altered ( Supplemental Fig. 1A )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"NRF2 may be transcriptionally upregulated by oncogenic forms of K-Ras, B-Raf and Myc ( xref ), although it should be noted here that we did not find a correlation between mutation in these genes and enrichment for AKR transcripts (cBioPortal, data not shown)."
BRAF binds SMOC1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The higher SMOC1 methylation was associated with KRAS mutation, wild-type BRAF , TP53 mutation and CIMP-low (Table xref )."
BRAF binds GNAS and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although some studies have reported that GNAS mutations are often associated with KRAS or BRAF mutation [9,10,12,13] , another study demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway could be activat[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds KRAS and PTEN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We also assessed the interaction of PTEN loss and KRAS and BRAF status on prognosis and outcome with bevacizumab."
BRAF binds KRAS and RFS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Some systematic literature reviews show that KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations are negatively associated with OS and RFS in patients who undergo complete liver resection for CRLM. xref , xref , xref , xref In particular, BRAF V600E mutations that present in 8%‐10% of patients are consistently associated with poor prognosis and result in possible patient ineligibility for resection of CRLM. xref , xref "
BRAF binds SLC2A1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"GLUT1 overexpression is associated with KRAS or BRAF mutations in colorectal tumors, thus potentially increasing DHA uptake in this important subset of patients ( xref )."
BRAF binds IQGAP1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We also found that overexpression or knock-down of IQGAP1 affected the interaction between K-Ras and B-Raf, and IQGAP1 overexpression increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in K-Ras dependent manner in PANC1 cells."
BRAF binds PLK2 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"By analyzing a public CRC dataset, it was found that a high expression of Plk2 was associated with dMMR, KRAS and BRAF mutations, and limited survival benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in late stage CRC."
BRAF binds IDH1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This may hint at a link between CIMP CRC tumors, which are typically associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations but not IDH1 or TET mutations, and CIMP gliomas, which are associated with IDH1 mutations [ xref ] but not BRAF or KRAS mutations."
BRAF binds ESRRB and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"They are associated with KRAS , BRAF or ERRB2 mutations in two-thirds of cases [ xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds TNS4 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Consistently, it is reported that gain-of-function mutations in K-RAS and B-RAF (both upstream molecules of MEK) are associated with CTEN overexpression ( xref )."
BRAF binds SIL1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The KRAS mutation (codon 12) and BRAF mutation are significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival in MSS stage III CC [7-9]."
BRAF binds HRAS and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Hu et al. have characterized genetic alterations and oncogenic pathway in different breast cancers subtypes, both in tissue and in cell lines, and found that all mutations in BRAF, KRAS and HRAS were significantly associated with the triple negative subtype [ xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here we analyzed plasma DNA from ten patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy by whole genome sequencing (plasma-Seq) and ultra-sensitive deep sequencing of genes associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment such as KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , and EGFR ."
BRAF binds TYMS, KRAS, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"To investigate the association of TYMS gene polymorphisms, KRAS and BRAF mutations with survival of CRC patients treated with chemotherapy."
BRAF binds RGMA, KRAS, and MSH6. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC samples, reduced RGMA levels were significantly associated with mismatch repair deficiency or mutations in KRAS or BRAF."
BRAF binds TP53, HLA-B, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we were able to detect mutations of genes frequently associated with certain subtypes of colorectal cancers such as BRAF, KRAS and TP53 ."
BRAF binds TP53, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Thirdly, the format of the cSMART assay allows for additional multiplexing and, potentially with careful design, could be expanded to include testing for other oncogenes such as KRAS, BRAF, TP53 and A[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
MEK binds BRAF, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The identification of i) APC and KEAP1 mutations, as alternative causes of activation of β–catenin and NRF2 respectively; ii) the association of BRAF , KRAS and NRAS mutations with MEK-inhibition sensitivity, and iii) our successful validation of the role of NOX5 in NRF2 activation, and the chr8q23–4 amplicon in predicting KRAS dependency, all provide a direct confirmation of REVEALER’s utility and effectiveness."
BRAF binds KRAS, PIK3CA, and MSI. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we also investigated critical molecular events such as KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and MSI status, all of which have been associated with colorectal cancer prognosis in order to adjusted our results [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds ERBB2, GNAS, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, GNAS and Her2 have been associated with UraC."
BRAF binds KRAS, PIK3CA, and moaB. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Recently, changes in these pathways were also linked to anti-EGFR MoAb resistance. xref It was reported that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were associated with anti-EGFR MoAb resistance, and testing for these mutations was a potentially cost-effective way to improve survival in mCRC patients. xref , xref Of note, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in a series of human cancers and is emerging as potential target for drug development."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and RASSF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Due to the relatively small number of the mutational cases, we could not establish if KRAS mutation and BRAF mutation were associated with EGFR and RASSF1A expression, and the clinicopathological features of the patients."
BRAF binds ARID1A, KRAS, and PTEN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Type I tumors are frequently associated with specific mutations in oncogenes such as KRAS, BRAF, PTEN and ARID1A. In the vast majority of type II tumors, TP53 is mutated, and a high level of chromosomal disruption is evident [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Companion diagnostics for hotspot mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and ALK, which are clinically associated with specific targeted cancer therapies, are currently available for LUADs [ xref ]."
BRAF binds TP53, GNAS, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In QUASAR 2 (511 tumours), TP53, KRAS, BRAF , and GNAS mutations were independently associated with shorter relapse-free survival (p<0·035 in all cases), and total somatic mutation burden with longer survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81 [95% CI 0·68–0·96]; p=0·014)."
ERK binds RAS, BRAF, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Potentiation occurred in cell lines harboring constitutive Ras-MAPK activation associated with EGFR/HER-2 overexpression or KRAS-BRAF muta­tions."
BRAF binds FLT3, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of KRAS , NRAS , FLT3, and BRAF gene mutations with EAL and also to explore whether parental smoking would be associated with acute leukaemia modulated by NQO1 rs1800566 polymorphism."
BRAF binds EGFR, KIT, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The EGFR, BRAF, KRAS, and KIT genes are associated with the largest numbers of interpretable variants."
ERK binds BRAF, KRAS, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Additionally, KRAS and BRAF mutations, which activate the MAPK cascade, are frequently associated with CRC (35%–45%) and are linked to the cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome."
BRAF binds TP53, KRAS, and PIK3CA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Also TP53 mutations were not associated with mutations in PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS genes or with activation of AKT, loss of PTEN expression and PIK3CA amplification."
BRAF binds ERBB2, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although mutations of KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF are not often associated with ERBB2 amplification in CRC ( xref ; xref ; xref ), they could account for some cases of resistance to HER2-directed therapy."
BRAF binds VHL, HIF1A, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Moreover, HIF-1α stabilization did not associate with oncogenic activation of BRAF or KRAS or Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutation."
ROS1 binds BRAF, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Presence of KRAS, ALK, ROS1 and BRAF alterations were not associated with survival (all p > 0.05)."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PTPN11. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Noonan syndrome can be caused by mutations in other genes, including PTPN11 , NRAS , KRAS , and BRAF , all of which have been associated with melanocytic neoplasia xref ."
BRAF binds TTR, KRAS, and Sar. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In a pooled analysis of resected stage III colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX, BRAF or KRAS mutations are independently associated with shorter TTR, SAR, and OS in patients with MSS, but not MSI, tumors."
BRAF binds SIRT1, KRAS, and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We demonstrate that high c-MYC and SIRT1 levels are associated with oncogenic BRAF and KRAS, and with activated Wnt signalling."
BRAF binds EGFR, ERBB2, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here, we analyze the association of ALK gene translocation with the occurrence of other driver gene mutations by directly sequencing the EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , and HER2 gene mutations and with clinicopathological characteristics."
| 1
sparser
"In addition, KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , PTEN , and CTNNB1 (β-CATENIN) mutations have historically been associated with Type I tumors at varying frequencies, whereas Type II tumors are largely defined by high frequency TRP53 (p53) mutations and chromosome instability xref , xref , xref ."
BRAF binds CD274, EGFR, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"PD-L1 had higher positive results in tumours with higher grade differentiation and vascular invasion and PD-L1 expression was not associated with the expressions of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and ALK."
BRAF binds SIRT1, NAMPT, KRAS, and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Together, these lines of evidence strongly suggested that oncogenic Braf and K-ras are directly associated with activation of the c-MYC-NAMPT-SIRT1 positive feedback loop in serrated route tumorigenesis."
| 1
sparser
"Mutations in other genes and genetic pathways such as KRAS, BRAF, TP53, PIK3CA, AR1D1A and HER2 have also been associated with the other subtypes of ovarian cancer as well as specific germ-line single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [ xref ]."
| 1
sparser
"At the tumour level, somatic mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PTEN and PIK3CA are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in CRC [ xref , xref ]."
RAF binds BRAF, KRAS, ARAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Activated KRAS binds and activates RAF family kinases, RAF1, BRAF, and ARAF [ xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, GNAS, KRAS, and TKIs. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"A poor response to EGFR TKIs was also associated with EGFR-resistant mutations such as exon 20 insertions or KRAS and BRAF mutations [ xref - xref ]."
BRAF binds IDH1, KRAS, frvX, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This may hint at a link between CIMP CRC tumors, which are typically associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations but not IDH1 or TET mutations, and CIMP gliomas, which are associated with IDH1 mutations [ xref ] but not BRAF or KRAS mutations."
BRAF binds TP53, APC, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Neither gene was associated with TP53, APC, KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations in tissue."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and Amh. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"While mutation of KRAS , NRAS, and BRAF are associated with poor response to antiEGFR monoclonal antibodies [ xref ], [ xref ], [ xref ], approximately 40% of patients that do not respond to anti‐epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies are KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF wild‐type [ xref ], suggesting a role for other oncogenic drivers."
| 1
sparser
"However, this frequency increased to 12.5 % in a subpopulation of cetuximab-resistant xenopatients bearing wild-type forms of KRAS , NRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , and HER2 ."
| 1
sparser
"Type 1 cancers are associated with mutations in KRAS, ARID1A, PIK3CA, PTEN, and BRAF; whereas the majority of type 2 cancers are associated with mutations in TP53 [ xref ]."
BRAF affects KRAS
1 1 | 279 11
1 1 | 141 11
sparser
"In humans, serrated colorectal cancers are associated with either BRAF or KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In agreement with others ( xref - xref ), we found that KRAS mutations were highly associated with lung-only metastases and BRAF mutations with peritoneal and nodal-only metastases."
sparser
"Additionally, we showed that KRAS or BRAF mutation could be associated with improved prognosis in MSI-positive colorectal cancers."
reach
"Treatment of KRAS * MEFs with YZ0711 also resulted in decreased RAS bound BRAF, suggesting YZ0711 can disrupt RAS signaling (XREF_FIG)."
sparser
"Since mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes are associated with resistance to therapy with anticancer drugs targeting the EGF receptor pathway, the analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutational status has become an important tool in the clinical management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer."
sparser
"The validity of the findings are however strengthened by the expected associations of KRAS and BRAF mutations with clinicopathological factors, e.g. KRAS and BRAF mutations being mutually exclusive [ xref ], the significant associations between BRAF mutation, MSI [ xref , xref , xref ] and mucinous phenotype [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"Similarly, it completely suppressed the effects of exogenous KRAS G12C expression on KRAS-GTP levels, KRAS-BRAF interaction, and ERK signaling ( xref )."
sparser
"Importantly, a MEK inhibitor (U0126) had no impact on KRAS G12V −BRAF or KRAS G12V −CRAF interactions (Supplementary Fig.  xref , d)."
sparser
"BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese CRC patients."
sparser
"Recent molecular advances have shown two molecular phenotypes of TSA: one associated with BRAF mutations and the other with KRAS mutations."
| 16
sparser
"However, mutations in K-RAS , b-Raf , and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies ( xref )."
sparser
"This analysis evaluated the association of K-ras, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations with tumor resistance to panitumumab alone."
sparser
"BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy."
sparser
"There are some evidence that PIK3CA mutations associated with activation of KRAS- BRAF mutation occurring in colorectal cancers ( xref )."
sparser
"Moreover, mutations in KRAS and other genes such as BRAF and PIK3CA are also associated with worse survival [ xref ]."
sparser
"We studied the presence of CIMP phenotype, MLH1 promoter methylation and MSI phenotype and their association with the presence of KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the series of polyps."
sparser
"In the patient group with wild-type KRAS , the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival."
sparser
"Stage; grade; obstruction; and BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations are strongly associated with sidedness."
sparser
"In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutations in KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to treatment with monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of EGFR (Di Nicolantonio et al, xref ; Lievre et al, xref ; Sartore-Bianchi et al, xref )."
sparser
"Our findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of CCA in Chinese population and provide new potential targets for future therapeutic treatments of the disease."
BRAF binds TP53 and KRAS. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"TP53, KRAS , and BRAF mutations were additionally independently associated with poor prognosis, although the association with BRAF and KRAS was restricted to MSI-negative tumours."
sparser
"CRC molecular features including MSI, CIMP and mutations in BRAF , KRAS and TP53 were not associated with age-adjusted cRTL or cRTL:nRTL ratios (multivariate P>0.115 for all comparisons) (Table xref )."
sparser
"However, p53, B-Raf V600E and K-Ras G13D proved dispensable for drug’s cytotoxic activity, thus rendering 3-BrPA a powerful therapeutic tool for the successful management of urothelial bladder tumors carrying either wild-type or mutant p53, B-Raf or K-Ras oncogenic forms."
sparser
"TP53, BRAF, and KRAS mutations are associated with differential lncRNA expression."
sparser
"For example, P53, KRAS, or BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer did not associate with bevacizumab-chemotherapy treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer [ xref ]."
sparser
"In multivariable analysis incorporating known clinicopathological prognostic factors, we showed that low overall mutation burden and mutations in KRAS, BRAF , and TP53 were independently associated with decreased relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer treated with curative intent."
sparser
"Furthermore, mutations in p53, K-Ras and BRAF are associated with the neoplastic changes of IECs during the sporadic colon cancer development; BRAF and K-Ras mutations have been considered as prognostic markers for MSI ( xref )."
BRAF binds EGFR and KRAS. 6 / 6
| 6
sparser
"In addition, activation of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR, such as mutations in KRAS or BRAF, have also been associated with progression of CRC and subsequent resistance to EGFR mAbs."
sparser
"KRAS mutation, present in 30%-40% of tumors, does not appear to be an independent negative prognostic factor, in that patients in the control arms of studies of EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer demonstrate similar outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. xref - xref Interestingly, the V600E mutation in BRAF, another gene in the KRAS signal transduction pathway, is also associated with nonresponse to EGFR-targeted therapy based upon early data. xref - xref Subset analyses from the CAIRO-2, CRYSTAL, and PETACC-3 trials suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation, unlike KRAS mutation, is associated with poor prognosis which may confound interpretation of its predictive value. xref - xref BRAF mutations are present in approximately 5% to 10% of colorectal tumors and appear to be mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. xref , xref , xref , xref BRAF mutation may be more common in patients with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which itself has been associated with a positive prognosis, highlighting the complexity of these molecular pathways. xref "
sparser
"This observation may have clinical significance for MEDI-565, especially in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where tumors bearing KRAS or BRAF mutations have been associated with reduced response rates to treatment with the EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. xref Thus, although EGFR antibody-targeting therapy frequently encounters lower response rates in metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring these mutations, the patients may respond to MEDI-565 treatment."
sparser
"The RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is a major signaling pathway that triggers cell proliferation upon EGFR ligand binding by activating the KRAS and BRAF genes."
sparser
"Although activating mutations of BRAF (BRAF V600E ) are found only in a small proportion of colon cancers, this poses a great challenge in the quest for a better outcome of the patients, in that BRAF mutations, like mutations in KRAS, are associated with resistance of colon cancer to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"Murine models of NSCLC have been described in which expression of mutated forms of K-ras, Egfr , or BRaf in the lung leads to the development of lung adenocarcinomas or pre-malignant lesions [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and NRAS. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend towards shorter overall survival compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
sparser
"Studies have identified several genetic alterations, including KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, which are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR agents."
sparser
"KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, but EGFR mutations are not (Fig.  xref c)."
sparser
"At present, KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF mutations are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic CRC, both in surgical and nonsurgical patients."
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend toward shorter duration of benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
ERK binds BRAF and KRAS. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"Based on our findings of a distinct ACF histology that is related to the underlying oncogenic alterations, we hypothesized that KRAS or BRAF mutations may be associated with differential ERK-1/2 activation."
sparser
"This is consistent with reports that primary mutations of BRAF and KRAS that increase ERK activity are associated with gefitinib resistance ( xref )."
sparser
"Interestingly, other work supports our general conclusions, in that IQGAP1 is known to directly interact directly with k-Ras, b-Raf, and Erk [ xref , xref , xref ]; thus serving as a scaffolding protein to promote Erk activity downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Ras activation."
sparser
"Importantly, the presence of either B-raf or K-ras mutation was marginally associated with the presence of cytoplasmic ERK expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.097), suggesting that the proportion of cytoplasmic ERK positivity is marginally higher in the mutated cases when compared to the unmutated ones."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any correlation between the molecular profile and clinical outcome of pTNM stage I CRCs and whether mutations in KRAS , BRAF , NRAS , and PIK3CA genes are associated with histopathological features in this group of tumors."
sparser
"It was widely recognized that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are significantly associated with a low response rate xref ."
sparser
"We optimized a 14-amplicon NGS panel to assess, in a consecutive cohort of 219 patients affected by mCRC, the presence and clinico-pathological associations of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected for diagnostics and research at the time of diagnosis."
sparser
"Of them, 36 patients did not exhibit mutations and 19 patients had one or more mutations: 16 patients had KRAS mutations (on exon 2: 14 patients and on exon 3-4: 2 patients), 1 NRAS mutation, 2 BRAF mutation and 4 PIK3CA mutations, associated with KRAS mutations in all of them (on exon 2: 3 patients and on exon 3-4: 1 patient)."
BRAF binds PBK and KRAS. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Molecular analysis of sporadic CRCs in Group 2 showed that diffuse TOPK expression was associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations (p<0.001) and with poor outcome in patients with either mutation in univariate and multivariate analysis ( P =0.017)."
sparser
"In sporadic CRC, diffuse TOPK expression was associated with the presence of KRAS or BRAF mutation, underlining the involvement of TOPK in ERK/MAPK signalling."
sparser
"As a MAPKK-like protein, it is a downstream molecule of KRAS and BRAF , both of which are associated with diffuse expression of TOPK ( xref )."
| 3
sparser
"CFC syndrome is associated with mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2 , and KRAS [ xref ; xref ; xref ; xref ]."
sparser
"CFC is associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2."
sparser
"In landmark publications, Rodriguez-Viciana et al. [ xref ] and Niihori et al. [ xref ] showed that genetic mutations in genes participating with MEK signaling, including KRAS , BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 are associated with CFC syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, we validated the previously reported association of CIMP with BRAF mutations, MSI, and KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In MSI colorectal carcinomas, KRAS mutations are inversely associated to BRAF mutations, the latter being the most frequent [30,31] ."
BRAF binds EZH2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression."
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF genotypes were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression in our series."
BRAF binds ERBB2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Oncogenic mutations in the KRAS [ 1 ], ERBB2 [ 3 ] and BRAF [ 4 ] have been frequently associated with AVC."
sparser
"Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is often associated with k-ras, b-raf, and ERBB2 mutations, while TP53 is rarely mutated [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and CRC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, it has been demonstrated that BRAF and KRAS mutations are frequently associated with CRC and influence prognosis ( xref )."
sparser
"In conclusion, by incorporation of CMS classification, novel subtype-specific prognostic associations of the extensively studied KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations in primary CRC were indicated."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and DCR. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Presence of K-RAS or B-RAF mutations were not statistically significantly associated with 8-week DCR ( P= 0.725 and P= 0.307, respectively)."
sparser
"In the patients with wild-type KRAS , the presence of the BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced DCR ( P  = 0.002; Table  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MRC1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored."
sparser
"The association of BRAF , KRAS and MMR individually with prognosis has been studied in colon cancers by ourselves xref – xref and others xref , xref , xref – xref ."
BRAF binds CTNNB1 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations."
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations, in keeping with the notion that CTNNB1 mutations are early events in CRC carcinogenesis. xref Conversely, our data confirm that the occurrence of SMAD4 mutations (2.1%) is a late event. xref In fact, in our study 64.3% of SMAD4 mutations occurred in combination with other alterations."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and NRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, secondary resistance develops in all patients and is associated with the development of secondary KRAS , NRAS , EGFR or BRAF mutations ( xref , xref , xref )."
sparser
"We then exploited the GDSC database and found that in a variety of cancer cells, mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF were associated with resistance to common EGFR inhibitors like Gefitinib and Afatinib, in spite of some mutations that did not pass false discovery rate (FDR), possibly due to complexity of genetic background throughout so many cancer types ( xref ; xref )."
BRAF binds TP53, KRAS, and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations."
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with 92% KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations (0, 4, and 31% respectively)."
BRAF binds STK11, EGFR, and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We used combined data from previous papers ( xref ; xref ) and from Sanger institute's databases ( xref ) to analyse association of LKB1 mutations with mutations of KRAS , BRAF , and EGFR ."
sparser
"Association of LKB1 mutations with K-Ras , B-Raf , and EGFR mutations in NSCLC."
AKT binds BRAF, KRAS, and cre. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral RCAS/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to Nestin expressing neural progenitor cells inInk4a/Arf lox/lox mice in vivo ."
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral replication-competent avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat, splice acceptor (RCAS)/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in Ink4a/Arf(lox/lox) mice in vivo."
BRAF binds KRAS, mtnN, and mcrC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In conclusion, our data suggest that mutations in KRAS and BRAF are associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS and BRAF were associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
MAPK binds BRAF and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Strikingly, paradoxical pathway activation was even more pronounced in the presence of KRAS or NRAS mutations, and this increased MAP kinase activity was associated with BRAF inhibitor-induced growth stimulation of KRAS - or NRAS -mutant MM cell lines ( xref )."
BRAF binds TP73 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The association between the expression of TAp73 and the presence/absence of K-Ras and B-Raf mutations in response to cetuximab supports their possible apoptotic function and helps to understand the action mechanism of this drug."
BRAF binds KRAS and mtnN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The same analysis in the total group of cetuximab-treated patients showed a significant association of the KRAS (HR 1.3; p = 0.044 for PFS and HR 1.5; p = 0.0065 for OS) and BRAF (HR 2.0; p = 0[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds KRAS and CRCs. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC, the MSI phenotype is characterized by the accumulation of numerous mutations across the genome, mainly in microsatellite sequences, due to a defective mismatch repair system. xref Both MSI‐positive advanced CRCs and precursors of MSI‐H CRCs are closely associated with BRAF or KRAS mutations and high levels of genomic methylation (CIMP‐high). xref , xref However, whether the same theory can be applied to EGC, which has been shown to preferentially develop into hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), has not been proven."
BRAF binds KRAS and SSP. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"According to a recent expert panel, however, SSP is mostly associated with BRAF mutation and the KRAS mutation is linked to TSA [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and MGMT. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Tumour budding was not associated with KRAS, BRAF, MGMT or CIMP, but was correlated inversely with MSI-H (P = 0.0049)."
BRAF binds KRAS and CHD5. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In fact, other mechanisms have been suggested in other types of tumors, as CHD5 mutation or methylation is associated with KRAS or BRAF mutation in ovarian cancer [ xref ], and CHD5 expression correlates with MYCN amplification in neuroblastoma [ xref , xref ]."
MEK binds BRAF and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"However, in a surprising development, two articles report that germline mutations in the KRAS, BRAF, and MEK1/2 genes are associated with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and SSA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"As reported in Spring et al, BRAF mutation was strongly associated with MVHPs and SSAs and KRAS mutation was associated with GCHPs and TVAs [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and MMUT. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Similarly, rLGALS9 reduced colony formation in all KRAS mut BRAF WT cell lines, but not in KRAS WT BRAF mut cells ( xref )."
BRAF binds PDLIM7 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Typically, LMP tumors are associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations."
BRAF binds KRAS and MAP2K1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Results herein demonstrate that transformation of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by oncogenic forms of KRAS, BRAF or MEK1 was associated with a marked increase in β-catenin/TCF4 and c-MYC promoter transcriptional activities and mRNA levels of c-Myc , Axin2 and Lef1 ."
BRAF binds KRAS and CS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although the vast majority of patients with CS harbor HRAS mutations, very recent studies have indicated that a CS phenotype may occasionally be associated with specific mutations of BRAF [ xref ] or KRAS [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and panC1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Knock-down of IQGAP1 slightly decreased the interaction between K-Ras and B-Raf in PANC1 cells ( Fig. 4 C), although the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not altered ( Supplemental Fig. 1A )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"NRF2 may be transcriptionally upregulated by oncogenic forms of K-Ras, B-Raf and Myc ( xref ), although it should be noted here that we did not find a correlation between mutation in these genes and enrichment for AKR transcripts (cBioPortal, data not shown)."
BRAF binds SMOC1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The higher SMOC1 methylation was associated with KRAS mutation, wild-type BRAF , TP53 mutation and CIMP-low (Table xref )."
BRAF binds GNAS and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although some studies have reported that GNAS mutations are often associated with KRAS or BRAF mutation [9,10,12,13] , another study demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway could be activat[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds KRAS and PTEN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We also assessed the interaction of PTEN loss and KRAS and BRAF status on prognosis and outcome with bevacizumab."
BRAF binds KRAS and RFS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Some systematic literature reviews show that KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations are negatively associated with OS and RFS in patients who undergo complete liver resection for CRLM. xref , xref , xref , xref In particular, BRAF V600E mutations that present in 8%‐10% of patients are consistently associated with poor prognosis and result in possible patient ineligibility for resection of CRLM. xref , xref "
BRAF binds SLC2A1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"GLUT1 overexpression is associated with KRAS or BRAF mutations in colorectal tumors, thus potentially increasing DHA uptake in this important subset of patients ( xref )."
BRAF binds IQGAP1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We also found that overexpression or knock-down of IQGAP1 affected the interaction between K-Ras and B-Raf, and IQGAP1 overexpression increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in K-Ras dependent manner in PANC1 cells."
BRAF binds PLK2 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"By analyzing a public CRC dataset, it was found that a high expression of Plk2 was associated with dMMR, KRAS and BRAF mutations, and limited survival benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in late stage CRC."
BRAF binds IDH1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This may hint at a link between CIMP CRC tumors, which are typically associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations but not IDH1 or TET mutations, and CIMP gliomas, which are associated with IDH1 mutations [ xref ] but not BRAF or KRAS mutations."
BRAF binds ESRRB and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"They are associated with KRAS , BRAF or ERRB2 mutations in two-thirds of cases [ xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds TNS4 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Consistently, it is reported that gain-of-function mutations in K-RAS and B-RAF (both upstream molecules of MEK) are associated with CTEN overexpression ( xref )."
BRAF binds SIL1 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The KRAS mutation (codon 12) and BRAF mutation are significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival in MSS stage III CC [7-9]."
BRAF binds HRAS and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Hu et al. have characterized genetic alterations and oncogenic pathway in different breast cancers subtypes, both in tissue and in cell lines, and found that all mutations in BRAF, KRAS and HRAS were significantly associated with the triple negative subtype [ xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here we analyzed plasma DNA from ten patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy by whole genome sequencing (plasma-Seq) and ultra-sensitive deep sequencing of genes associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment such as KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , and EGFR ."
BRAF binds TYMS, KRAS, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"To investigate the association of TYMS gene polymorphisms, KRAS and BRAF mutations with survival of CRC patients treated with chemotherapy."
BRAF binds RGMA, KRAS, and MSH6. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC samples, reduced RGMA levels were significantly associated with mismatch repair deficiency or mutations in KRAS or BRAF."
BRAF binds TP53, HLA-B, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we were able to detect mutations of genes frequently associated with certain subtypes of colorectal cancers such as BRAF, KRAS and TP53 ."
BRAF binds TP53, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Thirdly, the format of the cSMART assay allows for additional multiplexing and, potentially with careful design, could be expanded to include testing for other oncogenes such as KRAS, BRAF, TP53 and A[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
MEK binds BRAF, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The identification of i) APC and KEAP1 mutations, as alternative causes of activation of β–catenin and NRF2 respectively; ii) the association of BRAF , KRAS and NRAS mutations with MEK-inhibition sensitivity, and iii) our successful validation of the role of NOX5 in NRF2 activation, and the chr8q23–4 amplicon in predicting KRAS dependency, all provide a direct confirmation of REVEALER’s utility and effectiveness."
BRAF binds KRAS, PIK3CA, and MSI. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we also investigated critical molecular events such as KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and MSI status, all of which have been associated with colorectal cancer prognosis in order to adjusted our results [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds ERBB2, GNAS, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, GNAS and Her2 have been associated with UraC."
BRAF binds KRAS, PIK3CA, and moaB. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Recently, changes in these pathways were also linked to anti-EGFR MoAb resistance. xref It was reported that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were associated with anti-EGFR MoAb resistance, and testing for these mutations was a potentially cost-effective way to improve survival in mCRC patients. xref , xref Of note, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in a series of human cancers and is emerging as potential target for drug development."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and RASSF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Due to the relatively small number of the mutational cases, we could not establish if KRAS mutation and BRAF mutation were associated with EGFR and RASSF1A expression, and the clinicopathological features of the patients."
BRAF binds ARID1A, KRAS, and PTEN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Type I tumors are frequently associated with specific mutations in oncogenes such as KRAS, BRAF, PTEN and ARID1A. In the vast majority of type II tumors, TP53 is mutated, and a high level of chromosomal disruption is evident [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Companion diagnostics for hotspot mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and ALK, which are clinically associated with specific targeted cancer therapies, are currently available for LUADs [ xref ]."
BRAF binds TP53, GNAS, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In QUASAR 2 (511 tumours), TP53, KRAS, BRAF , and GNAS mutations were independently associated with shorter relapse-free survival (p<0·035 in all cases), and total somatic mutation burden with longer survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81 [95% CI 0·68–0·96]; p=0·014)."
ERK binds RAS, BRAF, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Potentiation occurred in cell lines harboring constitutive Ras-MAPK activation associated with EGFR/HER-2 overexpression or KRAS-BRAF muta­tions."
BRAF binds FLT3, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of KRAS , NRAS , FLT3, and BRAF gene mutations with EAL and also to explore whether parental smoking would be associated with acute leukaemia modulated by NQO1 rs1800566 polymorphism."
BRAF binds EGFR, KIT, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The EGFR, BRAF, KRAS, and KIT genes are associated with the largest numbers of interpretable variants."
ERK binds BRAF, KRAS, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Additionally, KRAS and BRAF mutations, which activate the MAPK cascade, are frequently associated with CRC (35%–45%) and are linked to the cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome."
BRAF binds TP53, KRAS, and PIK3CA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Also TP53 mutations were not associated with mutations in PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS genes or with activation of AKT, loss of PTEN expression and PIK3CA amplification."
BRAF binds ERBB2, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Although mutations of KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF are not often associated with ERBB2 amplification in CRC ( xref ; xref ; xref ), they could account for some cases of resistance to HER2-directed therapy."
BRAF binds VHL, HIF1A, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Moreover, HIF-1α stabilization did not associate with oncogenic activation of BRAF or KRAS or Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutation."
ROS1 binds BRAF, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Presence of KRAS, ALK, ROS1 and BRAF alterations were not associated with survival (all p > 0.05)."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PTPN11. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Noonan syndrome can be caused by mutations in other genes, including PTPN11 , NRAS , KRAS , and BRAF , all of which have been associated with melanocytic neoplasia xref ."
BRAF binds TTR, KRAS, and Sar. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In a pooled analysis of resected stage III colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX, BRAF or KRAS mutations are independently associated with shorter TTR, SAR, and OS in patients with MSS, but not MSI, tumors."
BRAF binds SIRT1, KRAS, and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"We demonstrate that high c-MYC and SIRT1 levels are associated with oncogenic BRAF and KRAS, and with activated Wnt signalling."
BRAF binds EGFR, ERBB2, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here, we analyze the association of ALK gene translocation with the occurrence of other driver gene mutations by directly sequencing the EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , and HER2 gene mutations and with clinicopathological characteristics."
| 1
sparser
"In addition, KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , PTEN , and CTNNB1 (β-CATENIN) mutations have historically been associated with Type I tumors at varying frequencies, whereas Type II tumors are largely defined by high frequency TRP53 (p53) mutations and chromosome instability xref , xref , xref ."
BRAF binds CD274, EGFR, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"PD-L1 had higher positive results in tumours with higher grade differentiation and vascular invasion and PD-L1 expression was not associated with the expressions of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and ALK."
BRAF binds SIRT1, NAMPT, KRAS, and MYC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Together, these lines of evidence strongly suggested that oncogenic Braf and K-ras are directly associated with activation of the c-MYC-NAMPT-SIRT1 positive feedback loop in serrated route tumorigenesis."
| 1
sparser
"Mutations in other genes and genetic pathways such as KRAS, BRAF, TP53, PIK3CA, AR1D1A and HER2 have also been associated with the other subtypes of ovarian cancer as well as specific germ-line single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [ xref ]."
| 1
sparser
"At the tumour level, somatic mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PTEN and PIK3CA are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in CRC [ xref , xref ]."
RAF binds BRAF, KRAS, ARAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Activated KRAS binds and activates RAF family kinases, RAF1, BRAF, and ARAF [ xref ]."
BRAF binds EGFR, GNAS, KRAS, and TKIs. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"A poor response to EGFR TKIs was also associated with EGFR-resistant mutations such as exon 20 insertions or KRAS and BRAF mutations [ xref - xref ]."
BRAF binds IDH1, KRAS, frvX, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This may hint at a link between CIMP CRC tumors, which are typically associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations but not IDH1 or TET mutations, and CIMP gliomas, which are associated with IDH1 mutations [ xref ] but not BRAF or KRAS mutations."
BRAF binds TP53, APC, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Neither gene was associated with TP53, APC, KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations in tissue."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and Amh. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"While mutation of KRAS , NRAS, and BRAF are associated with poor response to antiEGFR monoclonal antibodies [ xref ], [ xref ], [ xref ], approximately 40% of patients that do not respond to anti‐epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies are KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF wild‐type [ xref ], suggesting a role for other oncogenic drivers."
| 1
sparser
"However, this frequency increased to 12.5 % in a subpopulation of cetuximab-resistant xenopatients bearing wild-type forms of KRAS , NRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , and HER2 ."
| 1
sparser
"Type 1 cancers are associated with mutations in KRAS, ARID1A, PIK3CA, PTEN, and BRAF; whereas the majority of type 2 cancers are associated with mutations in TP53 [ xref ]."
BRAF affects KRAS, and PIK3CA
| 16
| 16
sparser
"However, mutations in K-RAS , b-Raf , and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies ( xref )."
sparser
"This analysis evaluated the association of K-ras, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations with tumor resistance to panitumumab alone."
sparser
"BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy."
sparser
"There are some evidence that PIK3CA mutations associated with activation of KRAS- BRAF mutation occurring in colorectal cancers ( xref )."
sparser
"Moreover, mutations in KRAS and other genes such as BRAF and PIK3CA are also associated with worse survival [ xref ]."
sparser
"We studied the presence of CIMP phenotype, MLH1 promoter methylation and MSI phenotype and their association with the presence of KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the series of polyps."
sparser
"In the patient group with wild-type KRAS , the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival."
sparser
"Stage; grade; obstruction; and BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations are strongly associated with sidedness."
sparser
"In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutations in KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to treatment with monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of EGFR (Di Nicolantonio et al, xref ; Lievre et al, xref ; Sartore-Bianchi et al, xref )."
sparser
"Our findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of CCA in Chinese population and provide new potential targets for future therapeutic treatments of the disease."
BRAF affects KRAS, and TP53
| 7
BRAF binds TP53 and KRAS. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"TP53, KRAS , and BRAF mutations were additionally independently associated with poor prognosis, although the association with BRAF and KRAS was restricted to MSI-negative tumours."
sparser
"CRC molecular features including MSI, CIMP and mutations in BRAF , KRAS and TP53 were not associated with age-adjusted cRTL or cRTL:nRTL ratios (multivariate P>0.115 for all comparisons) (Table xref )."
sparser
"However, p53, B-Raf V600E and K-Ras G13D proved dispensable for drug’s cytotoxic activity, thus rendering 3-BrPA a powerful therapeutic tool for the successful management of urothelial bladder tumors carrying either wild-type or mutant p53, B-Raf or K-Ras oncogenic forms."
sparser
"TP53, BRAF, and KRAS mutations are associated with differential lncRNA expression."
sparser
"For example, P53, KRAS, or BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer did not associate with bevacizumab-chemotherapy treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer [ xref ]."
sparser
"In multivariable analysis incorporating known clinicopathological prognostic factors, we showed that low overall mutation burden and mutations in KRAS, BRAF , and TP53 were independently associated with decreased relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer treated with curative intent."
sparser
"Furthermore, mutations in p53, K-Ras and BRAF are associated with the neoplastic changes of IECs during the sporadic colon cancer development; BRAF and K-Ras mutations have been considered as prognostic markers for MSI ( xref )."
BRAF affects EGFR, and KRAS
| 6
BRAF binds EGFR and KRAS. 6 / 6
| 6
sparser
"In addition, activation of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR, such as mutations in KRAS or BRAF, have also been associated with progression of CRC and subsequent resistance to EGFR mAbs."
sparser
"KRAS mutation, present in 30%-40% of tumors, does not appear to be an independent negative prognostic factor, in that patients in the control arms of studies of EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer demonstrate similar outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. xref - xref Interestingly, the V600E mutation in BRAF, another gene in the KRAS signal transduction pathway, is also associated with nonresponse to EGFR-targeted therapy based upon early data. xref - xref Subset analyses from the CAIRO-2, CRYSTAL, and PETACC-3 trials suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation, unlike KRAS mutation, is associated with poor prognosis which may confound interpretation of its predictive value. xref - xref BRAF mutations are present in approximately 5% to 10% of colorectal tumors and appear to be mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. xref , xref , xref , xref BRAF mutation may be more common in patients with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which itself has been associated with a positive prognosis, highlighting the complexity of these molecular pathways. xref "
sparser
"This observation may have clinical significance for MEDI-565, especially in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where tumors bearing KRAS or BRAF mutations have been associated with reduced response rates to treatment with the EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. xref Thus, although EGFR antibody-targeting therapy frequently encounters lower response rates in metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring these mutations, the patients may respond to MEDI-565 treatment."
sparser
"The RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is a major signaling pathway that triggers cell proliferation upon EGFR ligand binding by activating the KRAS and BRAF genes."
sparser
"Although activating mutations of BRAF (BRAF V600E ) are found only in a small proportion of colon cancers, this poses a great challenge in the quest for a better outcome of the patients, in that BRAF mutations, like mutations in KRAS, are associated with resistance of colon cancer to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"Murine models of NSCLC have been described in which expression of mutated forms of K-ras, Egfr , or BRaf in the lung leads to the development of lung adenocarcinomas or pre-malignant lesions [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF affects KRAS, and NRAS
| 5
BRAF binds KRAS and NRAS. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend towards shorter overall survival compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
sparser
"Studies have identified several genetic alterations, including KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, which are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR agents."
sparser
"KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, but EGFR mutations are not (Fig.  xref c)."
sparser
"At present, KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF mutations are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic CRC, both in surgical and nonsurgical patients."
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend toward shorter duration of benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
BRAF affects KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA
| 4
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any correlation between the molecular profile and clinical outcome of pTNM stage I CRCs and whether mutations in KRAS , BRAF , NRAS , and PIK3CA genes are associated with histopathological features in this group of tumors."
sparser
"It was widely recognized that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are significantly associated with a low response rate xref ."
sparser
"We optimized a 14-amplicon NGS panel to assess, in a consecutive cohort of 219 patients affected by mCRC, the presence and clinico-pathological associations of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected for diagnostics and research at the time of diagnosis."
sparser
"Of them, 36 patients did not exhibit mutations and 19 patients had one or more mutations: 16 patients had KRAS mutations (on exon 2: 14 patients and on exon 3-4: 2 patients), 1 NRAS mutation, 2 BRAF mutation and 4 PIK3CA mutations, associated with KRAS mutations in all of them (on exon 2: 3 patients and on exon 3-4: 1 patient)."
BRAF affects ERK, and KRAS
| 4
ERK binds BRAF and KRAS. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"Based on our findings of a distinct ACF histology that is related to the underlying oncogenic alterations, we hypothesized that KRAS or BRAF mutations may be associated with differential ERK-1/2 activation."
sparser
"This is consistent with reports that primary mutations of BRAF and KRAS that increase ERK activity are associated with gefitinib resistance ( xref )."
sparser
"Interestingly, other work supports our general conclusions, in that IQGAP1 is known to directly interact directly with k-Ras, b-Raf, and Erk [ xref , xref , xref ]; thus serving as a scaffolding protein to promote Erk activity downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Ras activation."
sparser
"Importantly, the presence of either B-raf or K-ras mutation was marginally associated with the presence of cytoplasmic ERK expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.097), suggesting that the proportion of cytoplasmic ERK positivity is marginally higher in the mutated cases when compared to the unmutated ones."