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phosphosite cbn pc11 biopax bel_lc signor biogrid tas lincs_drug hprd trrust | geneways tees isi trips rlimsp medscan sparser reach
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RAF1 affects BRAF
1 7 2 | 314 249
1 7 2 | 208 247
reach
"Of note, however, we failed to observe any significant influence on BRAF and RAF1 dimerization (XREF_SUPPLEMENTARY)."
reach
"We applied enhanced helper-interaction FRET (hiFRET) probes to study the binding between full-length H-Ras and Raf1 as well as the drug induced interaction between Raf1 and B-Raf."
reach
"There is evidence for B-Raf and C-Raf heterodimerization with highly increased kinase activity compared with the respective homodimers or monomers [XREF_BIBR]."
reach
"Herein, we report increased dimerization of B-Raf and c-Raf, as a potential mechanism of resistance to dasatinib, as recently reported by Packer et al (XREF_FIG & XREF_FIG)."
reach
"Interestingly, activation of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase pathway was increased in all four of the dasatinib resistant cell lines, likely due to B-Raf and c-Raf dimerization."
reach
"We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS dependent BRAF binding to CRAF, CRAF activation, and MEK-ERK signaling."
reach
"By the use of probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that this amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region is essential for homo-dimerization of B-Raf and hetero-dimerization of B-Raf and c-Raf at the plasma membrane, followed by phosphorylation of Thr118 in the amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region."
reach
"The key experiments being replicated include Figure 1A, in which the original authors demonstrated that treatment of a subset of BRAF WT tumor cell lines with RAF small molecule inhibitors resulted in an increase in cell viability, Figure 2B, which reported that RAF inhibitor activation of the MAPK pathway was dependent on CRAF but not BRAF, and Figure 4A, where the dimerization of BRAF and CRAF was modulated by the RAF inhibitor PLX4720, but not GDC-0879."
reach
"Critically, we show that whereas imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib did not affect BRAF binding to CRAF in the BCR-ABL cells, they enhanced BRAF binding to CRAF in BCR-ABL T315I Ba/F3 cells (XREF_FIG)."
RAS binds BRAF and RAF1. 10 / 29
| 28 1
sparser
"We show that wild-type B-RAF forms a complex with C-RAF in a RAS-dependent manner, whereas the mutants bind independently of RAS."
sparser
"We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS-dependent BRAF binding to CRAF, CRAF activation, and MEK–ERK signaling."
sparser
"Both B-Raf and C-Raf were constitutively bound to oncogenic Ras and contributed to Ras-dependent ERK activation."
sparser
"Figure 3B: A key finding of the original study is that RAS interaction with both CRAF and BRAF is required to induce BRAF:CRAF dimerization in the presence of a BRAF inhibitor."
sparser
"These data suggested that increased binding of class 3 BRAF mutants to activated RAS is associated with formation of more heterodimers of mutant BRAF and wild-type CRAF."
sparser
"Rheb has been reported to inhibit the Raf-dependent MAPK pathway through the interaction of the Ras-binding domain of BRaf or cRaf in a rapamycin-insensitive manner ( xref xref – xref )."
sparser
"In the presence of oncogenic RAS proteins, kinase-impaired BRAF forms a complex with CRAF, which leads to hyperactivation of the CRAF/MEK/ERK cascade [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"This intracellular signal induces a decrease of both Raf-1 and B-Raf affinities for activated Ras as well as the activation of Rap1."
reach
"Furthermore, in PC9 cells, treatment with alphaC-IN inhibitor AZ, but not with the alphaC-OUT inhibitor PB, resulted in formation of the CRAF, BRAF, and RAS complex, an effect that was abolished after pretreatment with GEF (XREF_SUPPLEMENTARY)."
sparser
"As predicted, these compounds blocked Sos-mediated nucleotide exchange and decreased the binding of Ras to both B-Raf and C-Raf."
BRAF binds KSR1 and RAF1. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"KSR-1 and BRAF or CRAF interaction is enhanced by pharmacological RAF inhibition, regulating drug-induced RAF dimer formation ( xref – xref )."
sparser
"Using co-IP, we tested the interactions between the N-terminal regulatory regions (NTRs) of BRAF, CRAF, and KSR1."
sparser
"Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, we identified the F311S mutation in MEK1 that abrogated KSR1, BRAF and CRAF binding ( xref )."
sparser
"We took advantage of the fact that kinase-dead forms of BRAF, CRAF and KSR1 could function as trans-activators to functionally separate the RAF dimer into an “activator” component (dead) and a “receiver” component (live), as proposed for other dimeric kinases ( xref )."
sparser
"In addition, association of B-Raf and/or Raf-1 with the scaffold protein KSR1 also modulates activation of MEK [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"To confirm that dimerization is required, dimerization-impairing forms of kinase-dead BRAF (R509H), CRAF (DDEE/R401H) and KSR1 (DDEE/R615H) ( xref ) were tested."
sparser
"These mutations also increased binding to endogenous KSR1, BRAF, and CRAF ( xref )."
BRAF binds GIT1, MAT2B, and RAF1. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"Instead, MAT2B and GIT1 interact with B-Raf and c-Raf and enhance recruitment of Raf proteins to MEK1/2."
sparser
"We found that MAT2B and GIT1 interact with both c-Raf and B-Raf endogenously in HepG2 and RKO cells."
sparser
"14 Overexpression of V1, V2, or GIT1 in HepG2 cells enhanced interaction between B-Raf and c-Raf ( Figure 4 A), and in the in vitro system, presence of MAT2B and GIT1 enhanced binding of B-Raf to i[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
sparser
"In both RKO and HepG2 cells, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that MAT2B and GIT1 interact with c-Raf and B-Raf ( Figure 1 A)."
sparser
"5 We first examined whether GIT1 and MAT2B interact with c-Raf and B-Raf."
RAF binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"The results of both groups support a model in which the BRAF-specific inhibitors induce RAS-GTP-dependent RAF1 activation via the formation of BRAF-RAF heterodimers or RAF1 homodimers followed by recruitment of RAF1 to the plasma membrane, triggering the MEK-ERK pathway ( xref ; xref )."
sparser
"It was recently reported that imatinib and nilotinib can bind to B-RAF and C-RAF leading to the formation of RAF hetero- and homo-dimers, and stimulate paradoxical activation of BRAF and CRAF in the presence of activated RAS xref ."
sparser
"Analysis of the mechanisms of cutaneous toxicities (notably, cuSCC) suggest that in BRAF wt cells, BRAF inhibitors cause formation of RAF dimers that lead to signaling through CRAF, particularly in those with an upstream mutation such as RAS . xref – xref Studies have shown frequent mutations in HRAS , and to a lesser extent NRAS , in benign and malignant (cuSCCs) proliferative lesions resected from patients on BRAF inhibitors, at higher rates than in lesions from patients not treated with inhibitors. xref – xref "
sparser
"The paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling observed in Ras mutant cells following BRAF inhibitor treatment occurs following the increased formation of Raf dimers consisting of either CRAF homodimer pairs or dimers between drug-bound BRAF and CRAF ( xref , xref ) ( xref )."
RHEB binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this paper we report a strong interaction between RHEB and BRAF that results in decreased BRAF-CRAF dimerization and decreased BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling."
sparser
"Here, we demonstrate for the first time that activation of Rheb is associated with decreased B-Raf and C-Raf phosphorylation at residues Ser-446 and Ser-338, respectively, concomitant with a decrease in the activities of both kinases and decreased heterodimerization of B-Raf and C-Raf."
sparser
"It has been reported that RHEB interacts with RAF kinases, however, reports are conflicting on whether RHEB binds both BRAF and CRAF, or just BRAF [ xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
sparser
"In this paper we report a strong interaction between RHEB and BRAF that results in decreased BRAF-CRAF dimerization and decreased RAF/MEK/ERK signaling."
BRAF binds ARAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"GDC-0879 was designed to target a specific BRAF mutation (BRAF V600E ) often found in melanomas, but it also binds wild type BRAF, CRAF and ARAF, with minimal efficacy against other kinases ( xref ; xref )."
sparser
"Ras-GTP promotes the formation of active homodimers or heterodimers of A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf by an intricate process."
sparser
"Through interaction with A-Raf, B-Raf and Raf-1, Ras activates the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases MEK 1 and 2, and in turn the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2."
sparser
"As summarized in Figure 1 E, LY3009120 bound to ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF proteins with similar affinities of 44, 31–47, and 42 nM, respectively."
MEK binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"While the results varied somewhat between the groups, the BRAF inhibitors promoted the formation of heterodimers of BRAF and CRAF that potently activate MEK in cells without a BRAF mutation."
sparser
"We therefore used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses to assess whether CH5126766 binds directly to MEK, BRAF, or CRAF."
sparser
"In case of the MAPK pathway, RKIP was shown to bind B-Raf and c-Raf as well as MEK and thereby inhibiting the Raf/MEK interaction [ xref ]; in case of the NFκB pathway, NFκB-inducing kinase and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1 are the targets."
sparser
"Indeed, we found that expression of KRAS G12C promotes RAS-RAF dimer formation without influencing BRAF-CRAF and BRAF-MEK binding, suggesting that RAS is joining a multimeric complex ( xref )."
RAP1 binds BRAF and RAF1. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Thus, both Raf-1 and B-Raf are able to bind Rap1."
sparser
"Although both B-Raf and Raf-1 bind to Rap1, only B-Raf is activated [41] ."
sparser
"Using domain shuffling experiments, it was shown that the difference between Raf-1 and B-Raf appears to reside in the strength of interaction of Rap1 with the CRD domains of Raf-1 and B-Raf [61] ."
BRAF binds RAF1 and rluC. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"We determined transfection conditions in HEK293T cells where formation of V-BRAF V600E :RLuc-CRAF dimers was induced by co-expression with NRAS Q61K as a constitutively active surrogate for pathway stimulation (STIM)."
sparser
"Upstream stimulation only modestly induced an interaction between a V-BRAF R188L mutant and RLuc-CRAF."
sparser
"Using transfection conditions that yielded low, medium, and near saturating levels of V-BRAF WT :RLuc-CRAF interaction, we measured MEK phosphorylation."
BRAF-S729A binds RAF1. 1 / 2
| 1
reach
"If this disruption is dependent on phosphorylation of BRAF Ser729, we would expect that the BRAF S729A mutant would bind more readily to CRAF."
sparser
"However, in the presence of the RAF inhibitor PLX4720, this CRAF-BRAF heterodimer kinase domain interaction is destabilized."
sparser
"Previous work showed that, in quiescent cells, the NTRs of BRAF and CRAF associate with their kinase domains to enforce a repressed state, and this was released upon RAS-GTP binding to their RBDs xref – xref ."
BRAF binds HRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We observed that complexes of full-length BRAF and CRAF dimers are formed primarily in the presence of coexpressed HRAS and HRAS G12V . Complexes containing truncated BRAF hybrid proteins were slightly affected by RAS coexpression ( xref )."
sparser
"B-Raf was shown to share almost the same H-Ras binding-specificity with Raf-1 by examining binding of the H-Ras mutants to Raf-1 and B-Raf in the yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays."
BRAF binds RAF1 and RAP1B. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Upon activation, Rap1b associated with B-Raf or C-Raf and colocalized with IQGAP1 complex."
sparser
"Third, Rap1b can bind to B-Raf or C-Raf directly and regulate their functions."
BRAF binds MAP2K1 and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"When bound to trametinib, the dissociation constants for the interaction of MEK1 with either BRAF or CRAF kinase were 0.101 μM and 0.107 μM, respectively."
sparser
"Moreover, the overexpression of MEK1(3A) failed to block endogenous MEK1 activation, although MEK1(3A) formed complexes with both c-Raf and B-Raf as well as p42/p44 MAPK."
BRAF binds NRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"These findings were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments using an NRAS-specific antibody that enabled to detect interactions between NRAS and both BRAF and CRAF ( xref )."
sparser
"It has been shown, for instance, that oncogenic RAS inhibits NRAS-BRAF interaction, leading to CRAF reactivation and cyclic adenosin monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase hyperactivity [13] ."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds PITX2 and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Microscale thermophoretic analysis of RGS association with c-Raf-RBD and B-Raf-RDB showed that RGS interacts with both RBDs of c-Raf and B-Raf strongly, with K d values of 0.71 nM and 0.18 nM, respectively."
sparser
"The K d values obtained from this analysis showed that RGS binds to the c-RAF and B-RAF RBDs with dissociation constants of 0.18 nM and 0.71 nM, respectively, demonstrating high-affinity binding ( xref )."
P14_3_3 binds BRAF and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Although this appears to contradict our observation that dephosphorylation does not disrupt the complex, because 14-3-3 binds to BRAF and CRAF in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, we presume that 14-3-3 protects these sites from dephosphorylation."
sparser
"Further studies will be required to investigate how the differential and dynamic regulation of 14-3-3 binding to the conserved C-terminal sites in C-RAF and B-RAF ( Hekman et al., 2004 ) affects bindi[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds CAV1, IQGAP1, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We are not aware of reports demonstrating cellular endogenous protein-protein interactions between caveolin-1 and B-Raf, or IQGAP1 and C-Raf, however, recombinant IQGAP1 fragments have been shown to bind to C-Raf [ xref ]."
sparser
"Three possibilities come immediately to mind: interaction between caveolin-1 and B-Raf, IQGAP1 and C-Raf, or B-Raf and C-Raf."
RAS binds BRAF, NRAS, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Expression of mutant NRAS was associated with an elevation of cellular RAS-GTP levels (data not shown) and induction of BRAF V600E-CRAF heterodimers ( xref ."
sparser
"Expression of mutant NRAS was associated with an elevation of cellular RAS-GTP levels (data not shown) and induction of BRAF V600E-CRAF heterodimers ( Figure S3 A)."
RAF binds BRAF, NRAS, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"By contrast, co-expression of WT BRAF or CRAF with mutant NRAS is associated with increased RAF kinase activity ( Figure 6 E, lanes 2–6)."
sparser
"By contrast, co-expression of WT BRAF or CRAF with mutant NRAS is associated with increase RAF kinase activity ( xref lanes 2–6)."
RAF binds BRAF, ARAF, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf."
sparser
"Activated KRAS binds and activates RAF family kinases, RAF1, BRAF, and ARAF [ xref ]."
ERK binds MEK, BRAF, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"One possibility is that BRAF kinase-impaired proteins interact with CRAF to stimulate MEK-ERK signalling ( xref , xref , xref )."
sparser
"IQGAP1, a multidomain protein with several protein interaction motifs, was shown to interact with B-Raf, C-Raf, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds PTPN11 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"LEOPARD syndrome (LS, OMIM 151100) is associated with PTPN11 , RAF1 and BRAF gene mutations, Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH, OMIM 607721) with SHOC2 gene mutations, cardio-facial-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS, OMIM 115150) with KRAS , BRAF , MEK1 and MEK2 gene mutations and Costello syndrome (CS, OMIM 218040) with HRAS gene mutations [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds CNKSR2 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"CNK2 binds to Raf-1 and B-Raf proteins in overexpression system as well as in rat crude synaptomal extract [55,56] ."
BRAF binds RAF1 and R>H. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In contrast, the R>H substitution blocked focus formation induced by moderate, low, and impaired activity B-Raf and C-Raf mutants, and the E>K substitution significantly increased their focus forming ability."
BRAF binds CNKSR1 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"As CNK2, CNK1 does also bind to Raf-1 and B-Raf [51] ."
RIT1 binds BRAF and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Rit binds B-Raf and C-Raf but only activates the neuronal specific B-Raf, which plays a role in neurite outgrowth [ xref ]."
BRAF binds ARAF, RAF1, and FlaG. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation analysis with lysates of 293H cells engineered to express FLAG-tagged RAF proteins showed that CH5126766 causes MEK1/2 to interact with all 3 FLAG-tagged RAF proteins, including FLAG-tagged BRAF V600E, whereas PD0325901 causes MEK1/2 to interact with FLAG-tagged wild-type ARAF and CRAF but not FLAG-tagged wild-type BRAF and mutant BRAF ( xref )."
GST binds RAS, BRAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Treatment of cells with RGS resulted in an inability of the B-RAF and c-RAF proteins to bind to activated GST-RAS G12D . In contrast, lysates derived from DMSO- or PLX4032-treated cells showed strong associations of c-RAF and B-RAF with GST-RAS G12D ( xref )."
BRAF binds BRAF, MAP2K1, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"For example, high expression levels of p-B-Raf p-RAF1 and p-MEK1 were associated with BRAF mutations; high expression levels of p-EGFR, p-SHP-2 and p-Stat3 were linked to EGFR mutations; and high levels of p-Akt or p-HER2 were associated with PIK3CA mutations and ERBB2 mutations, respectively."
| 1
sparser
"It has been shown that Raf-1 and B-Raf interact with both MEK1 and MEK2."
RAS binds BRAF, RAF1, and Ksr1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In the yeast two-hybrid interaction assay, mKsr-1 did not bind to either Ras, B-Raf or Raf-1, but interacted strongly with both MEK-1 and MEK-2, activators of MAP kinase."
| 1
sparser
"As expected, signaling downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1 were impaired in the absence of Rasip1 or Arhgap29, as the active (phosphorylated) form of key GTPase effector kinases, such as pPak4, pSrc, pB-Raf, pC-Raf and pErk, were reduced in siRNA-depleted ECs ( xref and xref )."
BRAF binds STK3, RAF1, and MST1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This mechanism is analogous to that reported for Raf/Mst heterodimers, where binding of c-Raf or B-Raf to a C-terminal domain of Mst2 or Mst1, respectively, results in Mst1/2 inhibition [ xref , xref ]."
Phosphorylated ERK binds BRAF, ARAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"On the other hand, resistance to BRAF inhibitors may be associated with elevated ARAF and CRAF protein levels and pERK activity in some cases."
| 1
sparser
"HSP90 inhibitor has been shown to prevent growth of BRAF resistant melanoma cell lines and human melanoma mouse xenografts, which was associated with degradation of several known resistance factors su[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
MEK binds BRAF, GIT1, MAT2B, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Interestingly, although MAT2B and GIT1 interacted with MEK1/2, c-Raf, and B-Raf in NCM460 cells, which are normal human colonic epithelial cells, overexpressing V1, V2, or GIT1 failed to enhance recru[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
| 1
sparser
"These effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCγ and S6K2, S6K1, Raf-1, and other PKC isoforms [ xref ]."
ERK binds MEK, RAP1, BRAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"IQGAP1 also has the ability to bind to Rap1 ( xref ), B-Raf or C-Raf ( xref ), Mek1/2 ( xref ) and Erk1/2 ( xref )."
BRAF binds HRAS, ARAF, RAF1, and RGS14. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In the absence of RGS14, H-Ras(G12V) interacts equivalently with Raf-1, A-Raf, and B-Raf (data not shown)."
BRAF affects RAF1
1 7 2 | 314 249
1 7 2 | 208 247
reach
"Of note, however, we failed to observe any significant influence on BRAF and RAF1 dimerization (XREF_SUPPLEMENTARY)."
reach
"We applied enhanced helper-interaction FRET (hiFRET) probes to study the binding between full-length H-Ras and Raf1 as well as the drug induced interaction between Raf1 and B-Raf."
reach
"There is evidence for B-Raf and C-Raf heterodimerization with highly increased kinase activity compared with the respective homodimers or monomers [XREF_BIBR]."
reach
"Herein, we report increased dimerization of B-Raf and c-Raf, as a potential mechanism of resistance to dasatinib, as recently reported by Packer et al (XREF_FIG & XREF_FIG)."
reach
"Interestingly, activation of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase pathway was increased in all four of the dasatinib resistant cell lines, likely due to B-Raf and c-Raf dimerization."
reach
"We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS dependent BRAF binding to CRAF, CRAF activation, and MEK-ERK signaling."
reach
"By the use of probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that this amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region is essential for homo-dimerization of B-Raf and hetero-dimerization of B-Raf and c-Raf at the plasma membrane, followed by phosphorylation of Thr118 in the amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region."
reach
"The key experiments being replicated include Figure 1A, in which the original authors demonstrated that treatment of a subset of BRAF WT tumor cell lines with RAF small molecule inhibitors resulted in an increase in cell viability, Figure 2B, which reported that RAF inhibitor activation of the MAPK pathway was dependent on CRAF but not BRAF, and Figure 4A, where the dimerization of BRAF and CRAF was modulated by the RAF inhibitor PLX4720, but not GDC-0879."
reach
"Critically, we show that whereas imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib did not affect BRAF binding to CRAF in the BCR-ABL cells, they enhanced BRAF binding to CRAF in BCR-ABL T315I Ba/F3 cells (XREF_FIG)."
RAS binds BRAF and RAF1. 10 / 29
| 28 1
sparser
"We show that wild-type B-RAF forms a complex with C-RAF in a RAS-dependent manner, whereas the mutants bind independently of RAS."
sparser
"We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS-dependent BRAF binding to CRAF, CRAF activation, and MEK–ERK signaling."
sparser
"Both B-Raf and C-Raf were constitutively bound to oncogenic Ras and contributed to Ras-dependent ERK activation."
sparser
"Figure 3B: A key finding of the original study is that RAS interaction with both CRAF and BRAF is required to induce BRAF:CRAF dimerization in the presence of a BRAF inhibitor."
sparser
"These data suggested that increased binding of class 3 BRAF mutants to activated RAS is associated with formation of more heterodimers of mutant BRAF and wild-type CRAF."
sparser
"Rheb has been reported to inhibit the Raf-dependent MAPK pathway through the interaction of the Ras-binding domain of BRaf or cRaf in a rapamycin-insensitive manner ( xref xref – xref )."
sparser
"In the presence of oncogenic RAS proteins, kinase-impaired BRAF forms a complex with CRAF, which leads to hyperactivation of the CRAF/MEK/ERK cascade [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"This intracellular signal induces a decrease of both Raf-1 and B-Raf affinities for activated Ras as well as the activation of Rap1."
reach
"Furthermore, in PC9 cells, treatment with alphaC-IN inhibitor AZ, but not with the alphaC-OUT inhibitor PB, resulted in formation of the CRAF, BRAF, and RAS complex, an effect that was abolished after pretreatment with GEF (XREF_SUPPLEMENTARY)."
sparser
"As predicted, these compounds blocked Sos-mediated nucleotide exchange and decreased the binding of Ras to both B-Raf and C-Raf."
BRAF binds KSR1 and RAF1. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"KSR-1 and BRAF or CRAF interaction is enhanced by pharmacological RAF inhibition, regulating drug-induced RAF dimer formation ( xref – xref )."
sparser
"Using co-IP, we tested the interactions between the N-terminal regulatory regions (NTRs) of BRAF, CRAF, and KSR1."
sparser
"Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, we identified the F311S mutation in MEK1 that abrogated KSR1, BRAF and CRAF binding ( xref )."
sparser
"We took advantage of the fact that kinase-dead forms of BRAF, CRAF and KSR1 could function as trans-activators to functionally separate the RAF dimer into an “activator” component (dead) and a “receiver” component (live), as proposed for other dimeric kinases ( xref )."
sparser
"In addition, association of B-Raf and/or Raf-1 with the scaffold protein KSR1 also modulates activation of MEK [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"To confirm that dimerization is required, dimerization-impairing forms of kinase-dead BRAF (R509H), CRAF (DDEE/R401H) and KSR1 (DDEE/R615H) ( xref ) were tested."
sparser
"These mutations also increased binding to endogenous KSR1, BRAF, and CRAF ( xref )."
BRAF binds GIT1, MAT2B, and RAF1. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"Instead, MAT2B and GIT1 interact with B-Raf and c-Raf and enhance recruitment of Raf proteins to MEK1/2."
sparser
"We found that MAT2B and GIT1 interact with both c-Raf and B-Raf endogenously in HepG2 and RKO cells."
sparser
"14 Overexpression of V1, V2, or GIT1 in HepG2 cells enhanced interaction between B-Raf and c-Raf ( Figure 4 A), and in the in vitro system, presence of MAT2B and GIT1 enhanced binding of B-Raf to i[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
sparser
"In both RKO and HepG2 cells, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that MAT2B and GIT1 interact with c-Raf and B-Raf ( Figure 1 A)."
sparser
"5 We first examined whether GIT1 and MAT2B interact with c-Raf and B-Raf."
RAF binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"The results of both groups support a model in which the BRAF-specific inhibitors induce RAS-GTP-dependent RAF1 activation via the formation of BRAF-RAF heterodimers or RAF1 homodimers followed by recruitment of RAF1 to the plasma membrane, triggering the MEK-ERK pathway ( xref ; xref )."
sparser
"It was recently reported that imatinib and nilotinib can bind to B-RAF and C-RAF leading to the formation of RAF hetero- and homo-dimers, and stimulate paradoxical activation of BRAF and CRAF in the presence of activated RAS xref ."
sparser
"Analysis of the mechanisms of cutaneous toxicities (notably, cuSCC) suggest that in BRAF wt cells, BRAF inhibitors cause formation of RAF dimers that lead to signaling through CRAF, particularly in those with an upstream mutation such as RAS . xref – xref Studies have shown frequent mutations in HRAS , and to a lesser extent NRAS , in benign and malignant (cuSCCs) proliferative lesions resected from patients on BRAF inhibitors, at higher rates than in lesions from patients not treated with inhibitors. xref – xref "
sparser
"The paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling observed in Ras mutant cells following BRAF inhibitor treatment occurs following the increased formation of Raf dimers consisting of either CRAF homodimer pairs or dimers between drug-bound BRAF and CRAF ( xref , xref ) ( xref )."
RHEB binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this paper we report a strong interaction between RHEB and BRAF that results in decreased BRAF-CRAF dimerization and decreased BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling."
sparser
"Here, we demonstrate for the first time that activation of Rheb is associated with decreased B-Raf and C-Raf phosphorylation at residues Ser-446 and Ser-338, respectively, concomitant with a decrease in the activities of both kinases and decreased heterodimerization of B-Raf and C-Raf."
sparser
"It has been reported that RHEB interacts with RAF kinases, however, reports are conflicting on whether RHEB binds both BRAF and CRAF, or just BRAF [ xref , xref , xref , xref ]."
sparser
"In this paper we report a strong interaction between RHEB and BRAF that results in decreased BRAF-CRAF dimerization and decreased RAF/MEK/ERK signaling."
BRAF binds ARAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"GDC-0879 was designed to target a specific BRAF mutation (BRAF V600E ) often found in melanomas, but it also binds wild type BRAF, CRAF and ARAF, with minimal efficacy against other kinases ( xref ; xref )."
sparser
"Ras-GTP promotes the formation of active homodimers or heterodimers of A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf by an intricate process."
sparser
"Through interaction with A-Raf, B-Raf and Raf-1, Ras activates the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases MEK 1 and 2, and in turn the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2."
sparser
"As summarized in Figure 1 E, LY3009120 bound to ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF proteins with similar affinities of 44, 31–47, and 42 nM, respectively."
MEK binds BRAF and RAF1. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"While the results varied somewhat between the groups, the BRAF inhibitors promoted the formation of heterodimers of BRAF and CRAF that potently activate MEK in cells without a BRAF mutation."
sparser
"We therefore used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses to assess whether CH5126766 binds directly to MEK, BRAF, or CRAF."
sparser
"In case of the MAPK pathway, RKIP was shown to bind B-Raf and c-Raf as well as MEK and thereby inhibiting the Raf/MEK interaction [ xref ]; in case of the NFκB pathway, NFκB-inducing kinase and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1 are the targets."
sparser
"Indeed, we found that expression of KRAS G12C promotes RAS-RAF dimer formation without influencing BRAF-CRAF and BRAF-MEK binding, suggesting that RAS is joining a multimeric complex ( xref )."
RAP1 binds BRAF and RAF1. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Thus, both Raf-1 and B-Raf are able to bind Rap1."
sparser
"Although both B-Raf and Raf-1 bind to Rap1, only B-Raf is activated [41] ."
sparser
"Using domain shuffling experiments, it was shown that the difference between Raf-1 and B-Raf appears to reside in the strength of interaction of Rap1 with the CRD domains of Raf-1 and B-Raf [61] ."
BRAF binds RAF1 and rluC. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"We determined transfection conditions in HEK293T cells where formation of V-BRAF V600E :RLuc-CRAF dimers was induced by co-expression with NRAS Q61K as a constitutively active surrogate for pathway stimulation (STIM)."
sparser
"Upstream stimulation only modestly induced an interaction between a V-BRAF R188L mutant and RLuc-CRAF."
sparser
"Using transfection conditions that yielded low, medium, and near saturating levels of V-BRAF WT :RLuc-CRAF interaction, we measured MEK phosphorylation."
BRAF-S729A binds RAF1. 1 / 2
| 1
reach
"If this disruption is dependent on phosphorylation of BRAF Ser729, we would expect that the BRAF S729A mutant would bind more readily to CRAF."
sparser
"However, in the presence of the RAF inhibitor PLX4720, this CRAF-BRAF heterodimer kinase domain interaction is destabilized."
sparser
"Previous work showed that, in quiescent cells, the NTRs of BRAF and CRAF associate with their kinase domains to enforce a repressed state, and this was released upon RAS-GTP binding to their RBDs xref – xref ."
BRAF binds HRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We observed that complexes of full-length BRAF and CRAF dimers are formed primarily in the presence of coexpressed HRAS and HRAS G12V . Complexes containing truncated BRAF hybrid proteins were slightly affected by RAS coexpression ( xref )."
sparser
"B-Raf was shown to share almost the same H-Ras binding-specificity with Raf-1 by examining binding of the H-Ras mutants to Raf-1 and B-Raf in the yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays."
BRAF binds RAF1 and RAP1B. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Upon activation, Rap1b associated with B-Raf or C-Raf and colocalized with IQGAP1 complex."
sparser
"Third, Rap1b can bind to B-Raf or C-Raf directly and regulate their functions."
BRAF binds MAP2K1 and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"When bound to trametinib, the dissociation constants for the interaction of MEK1 with either BRAF or CRAF kinase were 0.101 μM and 0.107 μM, respectively."
sparser
"Moreover, the overexpression of MEK1(3A) failed to block endogenous MEK1 activation, although MEK1(3A) formed complexes with both c-Raf and B-Raf as well as p42/p44 MAPK."
BRAF binds NRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"These findings were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments using an NRAS-specific antibody that enabled to detect interactions between NRAS and both BRAF and CRAF ( xref )."
sparser
"It has been shown, for instance, that oncogenic RAS inhibits NRAS-BRAF interaction, leading to CRAF reactivation and cyclic adenosin monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase hyperactivity [13] ."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds PITX2 and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Microscale thermophoretic analysis of RGS association with c-Raf-RBD and B-Raf-RDB showed that RGS interacts with both RBDs of c-Raf and B-Raf strongly, with K d values of 0.71 nM and 0.18 nM, respectively."
sparser
"The K d values obtained from this analysis showed that RGS binds to the c-RAF and B-RAF RBDs with dissociation constants of 0.18 nM and 0.71 nM, respectively, demonstrating high-affinity binding ( xref )."
P14_3_3 binds BRAF and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Although this appears to contradict our observation that dephosphorylation does not disrupt the complex, because 14-3-3 binds to BRAF and CRAF in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, we presume that 14-3-3 protects these sites from dephosphorylation."
sparser
"Further studies will be required to investigate how the differential and dynamic regulation of 14-3-3 binding to the conserved C-terminal sites in C-RAF and B-RAF ( Hekman et al., 2004 ) affects bindi[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds CAV1, IQGAP1, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We are not aware of reports demonstrating cellular endogenous protein-protein interactions between caveolin-1 and B-Raf, or IQGAP1 and C-Raf, however, recombinant IQGAP1 fragments have been shown to bind to C-Raf [ xref ]."
sparser
"Three possibilities come immediately to mind: interaction between caveolin-1 and B-Raf, IQGAP1 and C-Raf, or B-Raf and C-Raf."
RAS binds BRAF, NRAS, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Expression of mutant NRAS was associated with an elevation of cellular RAS-GTP levels (data not shown) and induction of BRAF V600E-CRAF heterodimers ( xref ."
sparser
"Expression of mutant NRAS was associated with an elevation of cellular RAS-GTP levels (data not shown) and induction of BRAF V600E-CRAF heterodimers ( Figure S3 A)."
RAF binds BRAF, NRAS, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"By contrast, co-expression of WT BRAF or CRAF with mutant NRAS is associated with increased RAF kinase activity ( Figure 6 E, lanes 2–6)."
sparser
"By contrast, co-expression of WT BRAF or CRAF with mutant NRAS is associated with increase RAF kinase activity ( xref lanes 2–6)."
RAF binds BRAF, ARAF, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf."
sparser
"Activated KRAS binds and activates RAF family kinases, RAF1, BRAF, and ARAF [ xref ]."
ERK binds MEK, BRAF, and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"One possibility is that BRAF kinase-impaired proteins interact with CRAF to stimulate MEK-ERK signalling ( xref , xref , xref )."
sparser
"IQGAP1, a multidomain protein with several protein interaction motifs, was shown to interact with B-Raf, C-Raf, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds PTPN11 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"LEOPARD syndrome (LS, OMIM 151100) is associated with PTPN11 , RAF1 and BRAF gene mutations, Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH, OMIM 607721) with SHOC2 gene mutations, cardio-facial-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS, OMIM 115150) with KRAS , BRAF , MEK1 and MEK2 gene mutations and Costello syndrome (CS, OMIM 218040) with HRAS gene mutations [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds CNKSR2 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"CNK2 binds to Raf-1 and B-Raf proteins in overexpression system as well as in rat crude synaptomal extract [55,56] ."
BRAF binds RAF1 and R>H. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In contrast, the R>H substitution blocked focus formation induced by moderate, low, and impaired activity B-Raf and C-Raf mutants, and the E>K substitution significantly increased their focus forming ability."
BRAF binds CNKSR1 and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"As CNK2, CNK1 does also bind to Raf-1 and B-Raf [51] ."
RIT1 binds BRAF and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Rit binds B-Raf and C-Raf but only activates the neuronal specific B-Raf, which plays a role in neurite outgrowth [ xref ]."
BRAF binds ARAF, RAF1, and FlaG. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation analysis with lysates of 293H cells engineered to express FLAG-tagged RAF proteins showed that CH5126766 causes MEK1/2 to interact with all 3 FLAG-tagged RAF proteins, including FLAG-tagged BRAF V600E, whereas PD0325901 causes MEK1/2 to interact with FLAG-tagged wild-type ARAF and CRAF but not FLAG-tagged wild-type BRAF and mutant BRAF ( xref )."
GST binds RAS, BRAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Treatment of cells with RGS resulted in an inability of the B-RAF and c-RAF proteins to bind to activated GST-RAS G12D . In contrast, lysates derived from DMSO- or PLX4032-treated cells showed strong associations of c-RAF and B-RAF with GST-RAS G12D ( xref )."
BRAF binds BRAF, MAP2K1, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"For example, high expression levels of p-B-Raf p-RAF1 and p-MEK1 were associated with BRAF mutations; high expression levels of p-EGFR, p-SHP-2 and p-Stat3 were linked to EGFR mutations; and high levels of p-Akt or p-HER2 were associated with PIK3CA mutations and ERBB2 mutations, respectively."
| 1
sparser
"It has been shown that Raf-1 and B-Raf interact with both MEK1 and MEK2."
RAS binds BRAF, RAF1, and Ksr1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In the yeast two-hybrid interaction assay, mKsr-1 did not bind to either Ras, B-Raf or Raf-1, but interacted strongly with both MEK-1 and MEK-2, activators of MAP kinase."
| 1
sparser
"As expected, signaling downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1 were impaired in the absence of Rasip1 or Arhgap29, as the active (phosphorylated) form of key GTPase effector kinases, such as pPak4, pSrc, pB-Raf, pC-Raf and pErk, were reduced in siRNA-depleted ECs ( xref and xref )."
BRAF binds STK3, RAF1, and MST1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"This mechanism is analogous to that reported for Raf/Mst heterodimers, where binding of c-Raf or B-Raf to a C-terminal domain of Mst2 or Mst1, respectively, results in Mst1/2 inhibition [ xref , xref ]."
Phosphorylated ERK binds BRAF, ARAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"On the other hand, resistance to BRAF inhibitors may be associated with elevated ARAF and CRAF protein levels and pERK activity in some cases."
| 1
sparser
"HSP90 inhibitor has been shown to prevent growth of BRAF resistant melanoma cell lines and human melanoma mouse xenografts, which was associated with degradation of several known resistance factors su[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
MEK binds BRAF, GIT1, MAT2B, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Interestingly, although MAT2B and GIT1 interacted with MEK1/2, c-Raf, and B-Raf in NCM460 cells, which are normal human colonic epithelial cells, overexpressing V1, V2, or GIT1 failed to enhance recru[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
| 1
sparser
"These effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCγ and S6K2, S6K1, Raf-1, and other PKC isoforms [ xref ]."
ERK binds MEK, RAP1, BRAF, and RAF1. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"IQGAP1 also has the ability to bind to Rap1 ( xref ), B-Raf or C-Raf ( xref ), Mek1/2 ( xref ) and Erk1/2 ( xref )."
BRAF binds HRAS, ARAF, RAF1, and RGS14. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In the absence of RGS14, H-Ras(G12V) interacts equivalently with Raf-1, A-Raf, and B-Raf (data not shown)."
KRAS affects BRAF
1 1 | 230 11
1 1 | 141 11
sparser
"In humans, serrated colorectal cancers are associated with either BRAF or KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In agreement with others ( xref - xref ), we found that KRAS mutations were highly associated with lung-only metastases and BRAF mutations with peritoneal and nodal-only metastases."
sparser
"Additionally, we showed that KRAS or BRAF mutation could be associated with improved prognosis in MSI-positive colorectal cancers."
reach
"Treatment of KRAS * MEFs with YZ0711 also resulted in decreased RAS bound BRAF, suggesting YZ0711 can disrupt RAS signaling (XREF_FIG)."
sparser
"Since mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes are associated with resistance to therapy with anticancer drugs targeting the EGF receptor pathway, the analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutational status has become an important tool in the clinical management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer."
sparser
"The validity of the findings are however strengthened by the expected associations of KRAS and BRAF mutations with clinicopathological factors, e.g. KRAS and BRAF mutations being mutually exclusive [ xref ], the significant associations between BRAF mutation, MSI [ xref , xref , xref ] and mucinous phenotype [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"Similarly, it completely suppressed the effects of exogenous KRAS G12C expression on KRAS-GTP levels, KRAS-BRAF interaction, and ERK signaling ( xref )."
sparser
"Importantly, a MEK inhibitor (U0126) had no impact on KRAS G12V −BRAF or KRAS G12V −CRAF interactions (Supplementary Fig.  xref , d)."
sparser
"BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese CRC patients."
sparser
"Recent molecular advances have shown two molecular phenotypes of TSA: one associated with BRAF mutations and the other with KRAS mutations."
| 16
sparser
"However, mutations in K-RAS , b-Raf , and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies ( xref )."
sparser
"This analysis evaluated the association of K-ras, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations with tumor resistance to panitumumab alone."
sparser
"BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy."
sparser
"There are some evidence that PIK3CA mutations associated with activation of KRAS- BRAF mutation occurring in colorectal cancers ( xref )."
sparser
"Moreover, mutations in KRAS and other genes such as BRAF and PIK3CA are also associated with worse survival [ xref ]."
sparser
"We studied the presence of CIMP phenotype, MLH1 promoter methylation and MSI phenotype and their association with the presence of KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the series of polyps."
sparser
"In the patient group with wild-type KRAS , the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival."
sparser
"Stage; grade; obstruction; and BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations are strongly associated with sidedness."
sparser
"In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutations in KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to treatment with monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of EGFR (Di Nicolantonio et al, xref ; Lievre et al, xref ; Sartore-Bianchi et al, xref )."
sparser
"Our findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of CCA in Chinese population and provide new potential targets for future therapeutic treatments of the disease."
BRAF binds TP53 and KRAS. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"TP53, KRAS , and BRAF mutations were additionally independently associated with poor prognosis, although the association with BRAF and KRAS was restricted to MSI-negative tumours."
sparser
"CRC molecular features including MSI, CIMP and mutations in BRAF , KRAS and TP53 were not associated with age-adjusted cRTL or cRTL:nRTL ratios (multivariate P>0.115 for all comparisons) (Table xref )."
sparser
"However, p53, B-Raf V600E and K-Ras G13D proved dispensable for drug’s cytotoxic activity, thus rendering 3-BrPA a powerful therapeutic tool for the successful management of urothelial bladder tumors carrying either wild-type or mutant p53, B-Raf or K-Ras oncogenic forms."
sparser
"TP53, BRAF, and KRAS mutations are associated with differential lncRNA expression."
sparser
"For example, P53, KRAS, or BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer did not associate with bevacizumab-chemotherapy treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer [ xref ]."
sparser
"In multivariable analysis incorporating known clinicopathological prognostic factors, we showed that low overall mutation burden and mutations in KRAS, BRAF , and TP53 were independently associated with decreased relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer treated with curative intent."
sparser
"Furthermore, mutations in p53, K-Ras and BRAF are associated with the neoplastic changes of IECs during the sporadic colon cancer development; BRAF and K-Ras mutations have been considered as prognostic markers for MSI ( xref )."
BRAF binds EGFR and KRAS. 6 / 6
| 6
sparser
"In addition, activation of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR, such as mutations in KRAS or BRAF, have also been associated with progression of CRC and subsequent resistance to EGFR mAbs."
sparser
"KRAS mutation, present in 30%-40% of tumors, does not appear to be an independent negative prognostic factor, in that patients in the control arms of studies of EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer demonstrate similar outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. xref - xref Interestingly, the V600E mutation in BRAF, another gene in the KRAS signal transduction pathway, is also associated with nonresponse to EGFR-targeted therapy based upon early data. xref - xref Subset analyses from the CAIRO-2, CRYSTAL, and PETACC-3 trials suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation, unlike KRAS mutation, is associated with poor prognosis which may confound interpretation of its predictive value. xref - xref BRAF mutations are present in approximately 5% to 10% of colorectal tumors and appear to be mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. xref , xref , xref , xref BRAF mutation may be more common in patients with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which itself has been associated with a positive prognosis, highlighting the complexity of these molecular pathways. xref "
sparser
"This observation may have clinical significance for MEDI-565, especially in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where tumors bearing KRAS or BRAF mutations have been associated with reduced response rates to treatment with the EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. xref Thus, although EGFR antibody-targeting therapy frequently encounters lower response rates in metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring these mutations, the patients may respond to MEDI-565 treatment."
sparser
"The RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is a major signaling pathway that triggers cell proliferation upon EGFR ligand binding by activating the KRAS and BRAF genes."
sparser
"Although activating mutations of BRAF (BRAF V600E ) are found only in a small proportion of colon cancers, this poses a great challenge in the quest for a better outcome of the patients, in that BRAF mutations, like mutations in KRAS, are associated with resistance of colon cancer to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"Murine models of NSCLC have been described in which expression of mutated forms of K-ras, Egfr , or BRaf in the lung leads to the development of lung adenocarcinomas or pre-malignant lesions [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and NRAS. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend towards shorter overall survival compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
sparser
"Studies have identified several genetic alterations, including KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, which are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR agents."
sparser
"KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, but EGFR mutations are not (Fig.  xref c)."
sparser
"At present, KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF mutations are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic CRC, both in surgical and nonsurgical patients."
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend toward shorter duration of benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
ERK binds BRAF and KRAS. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"Based on our findings of a distinct ACF histology that is related to the underlying oncogenic alterations, we hypothesized that KRAS or BRAF mutations may be associated with differential ERK-1/2 activation."
sparser
"This is consistent with reports that primary mutations of BRAF and KRAS that increase ERK activity are associated with gefitinib resistance ( xref )."
sparser
"Interestingly, other work supports our general conclusions, in that IQGAP1 is known to directly interact directly with k-Ras, b-Raf, and Erk [ xref , xref , xref ]; thus serving as a scaffolding protein to promote Erk activity downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Ras activation."
sparser
"Importantly, the presence of either B-raf or K-ras mutation was marginally associated with the presence of cytoplasmic ERK expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.097), suggesting that the proportion of cytoplasmic ERK positivity is marginally higher in the mutated cases when compared to the unmutated ones."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any correlation between the molecular profile and clinical outcome of pTNM stage I CRCs and whether mutations in KRAS , BRAF , NRAS , and PIK3CA genes are associated with histopathological features in this group of tumors."
sparser
"It was widely recognized that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are significantly associated with a low response rate xref ."
sparser
"We optimized a 14-amplicon NGS panel to assess, in a consecutive cohort of 219 patients affected by mCRC, the presence and clinico-pathological associations of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected for diagnostics and research at the time of diagnosis."
sparser
"Of them, 36 patients did not exhibit mutations and 19 patients had one or more mutations: 16 patients had KRAS mutations (on exon 2: 14 patients and on exon 3-4: 2 patients), 1 NRAS mutation, 2 BRAF mutation and 4 PIK3CA mutations, associated with KRAS mutations in all of them (on exon 2: 3 patients and on exon 3-4: 1 patient)."
BRAF binds PBK and KRAS. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Molecular analysis of sporadic CRCs in Group 2 showed that diffuse TOPK expression was associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations (p<0.001) and with poor outcome in patients with either mutation in univariate and multivariate analysis ( P =0.017)."
sparser
"In sporadic CRC, diffuse TOPK expression was associated with the presence of KRAS or BRAF mutation, underlining the involvement of TOPK in ERK/MAPK signalling."
sparser
"As a MAPKK-like protein, it is a downstream molecule of KRAS and BRAF , both of which are associated with diffuse expression of TOPK ( xref )."
| 3
sparser
"CFC syndrome is associated with mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2 , and KRAS [ xref ; xref ; xref ; xref ]."
sparser
"CFC is associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2."
sparser
"In landmark publications, Rodriguez-Viciana et al. [ xref ] and Niihori et al. [ xref ] showed that genetic mutations in genes participating with MEK signaling, including KRAS , BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 are associated with CFC syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, we validated the previously reported association of CIMP with BRAF mutations, MSI, and KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In MSI colorectal carcinomas, KRAS mutations are inversely associated to BRAF mutations, the latter being the most frequent [30,31] ."
BRAF binds EZH2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression."
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF genotypes were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression in our series."
BRAF binds ERBB2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Oncogenic mutations in the KRAS [ 1 ], ERBB2 [ 3 ] and BRAF [ 4 ] have been frequently associated with AVC."
sparser
"Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is often associated with k-ras, b-raf, and ERBB2 mutations, while TP53 is rarely mutated [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and CRC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, it has been demonstrated that BRAF and KRAS mutations are frequently associated with CRC and influence prognosis ( xref )."
sparser
"In conclusion, by incorporation of CMS classification, novel subtype-specific prognostic associations of the extensively studied KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations in primary CRC were indicated."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and DCR. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Presence of K-RAS or B-RAF mutations were not statistically significantly associated with 8-week DCR ( P= 0.725 and P= 0.307, respectively)."
sparser
"In the patients with wild-type KRAS , the presence of the BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced DCR ( P  = 0.002; Table  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MRC1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored."
sparser
"The association of BRAF , KRAS and MMR individually with prognosis has been studied in colon cancers by ourselves xref – xref and others xref , xref , xref – xref ."
BRAF binds CTNNB1 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations."
sparser
"In particular, CTNNB1 mutations were consistently associated with the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway by either KRAS (n=4) or BRAF (n=3) concurrent mutations, in keeping with the notion that CTNNB1 mutations are early events in CRC carcinogenesis. xref Conversely, our data confirm that the occurrence of SMAD4 mutations (2.1%) is a late event. xref In fact, in our study 64.3% of SMAD4 mutations occurred in combination with other alterations."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and NRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, secondary resistance develops in all patients and is associated with the development of secondary KRAS , NRAS , EGFR or BRAF mutations ( xref , xref , xref )."
sparser
"We then exploited the GDSC database and found that in a variety of cancer cells, mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF were associated with resistance to common EGFR inhibitors like Gefitinib and Afatinib, in spite of some mutations that did not pass false discovery rate (FDR), possibly due to complexity of genetic background throughout so many cancer types ( xref ; xref )."
BRAF binds TP53, KRAS, and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations."
sparser
"CIMP2 is associated with 92% KRAS mutations and rare MSI, BRAF, or p53 mutations (0, 4, and 31% respectively)."
BRAF binds STK11, EGFR, and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We used combined data from previous papers ( xref ; xref ) and from Sanger institute's databases ( xref ) to analyse association of LKB1 mutations with mutations of KRAS , BRAF , and EGFR ."
sparser
"Association of LKB1 mutations with K-Ras , B-Raf , and EGFR mutations in NSCLC."
AKT binds BRAF, KRAS, and cre. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral RCAS/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to Nestin expressing neural progenitor cells inInk4a/Arf lox/lox mice in vivo ."
sparser
"We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral replication-competent avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat, splice acceptor (RCAS)/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in Ink4a/Arf(lox/lox) mice in vivo."
BRAF binds KRAS, mtnN, and mcrC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In conclusion, our data suggest that mutations in KRAS and BRAF are associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS and BRAF were associated with inferior PFS and OS of mCRC patients compared with patients with non-mutated tumors."
MAPK binds BRAF and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Strikingly, paradoxical pathway activation was even more pronounced in the presence of KRAS or NRAS mutations, and this increased MAP kinase activity was associated with BRAF inhibitor-induced growth stimulation of KRAS - or NRAS -mutant MM cell lines ( xref )."
BRAF binds TP73 and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The association between the expression of TAp73 and the presence/absence of K-Ras and B-Raf mutations in response to cetuximab supports their possible apoptotic function and helps to understand the action mechanism of this drug."
BRAF binds KRAS and mtnN. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The same analysis in the total group of cetuximab-treated patients showed a significant association of the KRAS (HR 1.3; p = 0.044 for PFS and HR 1.5; p = 0.0065 for OS) and BRAF (HR 2.0; p = 0[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
BRAF binds KRAS and CRCs. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC, the MSI phenotype is characterized by the accumulation of numerous mutations across the genome, mainly in microsatellite sequences, due to a defective mismatch repair system. xref Both MSI‐positive advanced CRCs and precursors of MSI‐H CRCs are closely associated with BRAF or KRAS mutations and high levels of genomic methylation (CIMP‐high). xref , xref However, whether the same theory can be applied to EGC, which has been shown to preferentially develop into hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), has not been proven."
BRAF binds EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here we analyzed plasma DNA from ten patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy by whole genome sequencing (plasma-Seq) and ultra-sensitive deep sequencing of genes associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment such as KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , and EGFR ."
BRAF binds TYMS, KRAS, and CRC. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"To investigate the association of TYMS gene polymorphisms, KRAS and BRAF mutations with survival of CRC patients treated with chemotherapy."
BRAF binds RGMA, KRAS, and MSH6. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In CRC samples, reduced RGMA levels were significantly associated with mismatch repair deficiency or mutations in KRAS or BRAF."
BRAF binds TP53, HLA-B, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we were able to detect mutations of genes frequently associated with certain subtypes of colorectal cancers such as BRAF, KRAS and TP53 ."
BRAF binds TP53, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Thirdly, the format of the cSMART assay allows for additional multiplexing and, potentially with careful design, could be expanded to include testing for other oncogenes such as KRAS, BRAF, TP53 and A[MISSING/INVALID API KEY: limited to 200 char for Elsevier]"
MEK binds BRAF, KRAS, and NRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"The identification of i) APC and KEAP1 mutations, as alternative causes of activation of β–catenin and NRF2 respectively; ii) the association of BRAF , KRAS and NRAS mutations with MEK-inhibition sensitivity, and iii) our successful validation of the role of NOX5 in NRF2 activation, and the chr8q23–4 amplicon in predicting KRAS dependency, all provide a direct confirmation of REVEALER’s utility and effectiveness."
BRAF binds KRAS, PIK3CA, and MSI. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"In addition, we also investigated critical molecular events such as KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and MSI status, all of which have been associated with colorectal cancer prognosis in order to adjusted our results [ xref – xref ]."
BRAF binds ERBB2, GNAS, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, GNAS and Her2 have been associated with UraC."
BRAF binds EGFR, ERBB2, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"Here, we analyze the association of ALK gene translocation with the occurrence of other driver gene mutations by directly sequencing the EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , and HER2 gene mutations and with clinicopathological characteristics."
| 1
sparser
"In addition, KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , PTEN , and CTNNB1 (β-CATENIN) mutations have historically been associated with Type I tumors at varying frequencies, whereas Type II tumors are largely defined by high frequency TRP53 (p53) mutations and chromosome instability xref , xref , xref ."
BRAF binds CD274, EGFR, ALK, and KRAS. 1 / 1
| 1
sparser
"PD-L1 had higher positive results in tumours with higher grade differentiation and vascular invasion and PD-L1 expression was not associated with the expressions of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and ALK."
BRAF affects KRAS
1 1 | 230 11
1 1 | 141 11
sparser
"In humans, serrated colorectal cancers are associated with either BRAF or KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In agreement with others ( xref - xref ), we found that KRAS mutations were highly associated with lung-only metastases and BRAF mutations with peritoneal and nodal-only metastases."
sparser
"Additionally, we showed that KRAS or BRAF mutation could be associated with improved prognosis in MSI-positive colorectal cancers."
reach
"Treatment of KRAS * MEFs with YZ0711 also resulted in decreased RAS bound BRAF, suggesting YZ0711 can disrupt RAS signaling (XREF_FIG)."
sparser
"Since mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes are associated with resistance to therapy with anticancer drugs targeting the EGF receptor pathway, the analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutational status has become an important tool in the clinical management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer."
sparser
"The validity of the findings are however strengthened by the expected associations of KRAS and BRAF mutations with clinicopathological factors, e.g. KRAS and BRAF mutations being mutually exclusive [ xref ], the significant associations between BRAF mutation, MSI [ xref , xref , xref ] and mucinous phenotype [ xref , xref ]."
sparser
"Similarly, it completely suppressed the effects of exogenous KRAS G12C expression on KRAS-GTP levels, KRAS-BRAF interaction, and ERK signaling ( xref )."
sparser
"Importantly, a MEK inhibitor (U0126) had no impact on KRAS G12V −BRAF or KRAS G12V −CRAF interactions (Supplementary Fig.  xref , d)."
sparser
"BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese CRC patients."
sparser
"Recent molecular advances have shown two molecular phenotypes of TSA: one associated with BRAF mutations and the other with KRAS mutations."
| 16
sparser
"However, mutations in K-RAS , b-Raf , and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapies ( xref )."
sparser
"This analysis evaluated the association of K-ras, BRAF, and PIK3CA gene mutations with tumor resistance to panitumumab alone."
sparser
"BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy."
sparser
"There are some evidence that PIK3CA mutations associated with activation of KRAS- BRAF mutation occurring in colorectal cancers ( xref )."
sparser
"Moreover, mutations in KRAS and other genes such as BRAF and PIK3CA are also associated with worse survival [ xref ]."
sparser
"We studied the presence of CIMP phenotype, MLH1 promoter methylation and MSI phenotype and their association with the presence of KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the series of polyps."
sparser
"In the patient group with wild-type KRAS , the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival."
sparser
"Stage; grade; obstruction; and BRAF , KRAS , and PIK3CA mutations are strongly associated with sidedness."
sparser
"In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutations in KRAS , BRAF and PIK3CA are associated with resistance to treatment with monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of EGFR (Di Nicolantonio et al, xref ; Lievre et al, xref ; Sartore-Bianchi et al, xref )."
sparser
"Our findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of CCA in Chinese population and provide new potential targets for future therapeutic treatments of the disease."
BRAF binds TP53 and KRAS. 7 / 7
| 7
sparser
"TP53, KRAS , and BRAF mutations were additionally independently associated with poor prognosis, although the association with BRAF and KRAS was restricted to MSI-negative tumours."
sparser
"CRC molecular features including MSI, CIMP and mutations in BRAF , KRAS and TP53 were not associated with age-adjusted cRTL or cRTL:nRTL ratios (multivariate P>0.115 for all comparisons) (Table xref )."
sparser
"However, p53, B-Raf V600E and K-Ras G13D proved dispensable for drug’s cytotoxic activity, thus rendering 3-BrPA a powerful therapeutic tool for the successful management of urothelial bladder tumors carrying either wild-type or mutant p53, B-Raf or K-Ras oncogenic forms."
sparser
"TP53, BRAF, and KRAS mutations are associated with differential lncRNA expression."
sparser
"For example, P53, KRAS, or BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer did not associate with bevacizumab-chemotherapy treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer [ xref ]."
sparser
"In multivariable analysis incorporating known clinicopathological prognostic factors, we showed that low overall mutation burden and mutations in KRAS, BRAF , and TP53 were independently associated with decreased relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer treated with curative intent."
sparser
"Furthermore, mutations in p53, K-Ras and BRAF are associated with the neoplastic changes of IECs during the sporadic colon cancer development; BRAF and K-Ras mutations have been considered as prognostic markers for MSI ( xref )."
BRAF binds EGFR and KRAS. 6 / 6
| 6
sparser
"In addition, activation of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR, such as mutations in KRAS or BRAF, have also been associated with progression of CRC and subsequent resistance to EGFR mAbs."
sparser
"KRAS mutation, present in 30%-40% of tumors, does not appear to be an independent negative prognostic factor, in that patients in the control arms of studies of EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer demonstrate similar outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. xref - xref Interestingly, the V600E mutation in BRAF, another gene in the KRAS signal transduction pathway, is also associated with nonresponse to EGFR-targeted therapy based upon early data. xref - xref Subset analyses from the CAIRO-2, CRYSTAL, and PETACC-3 trials suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation, unlike KRAS mutation, is associated with poor prognosis which may confound interpretation of its predictive value. xref - xref BRAF mutations are present in approximately 5% to 10% of colorectal tumors and appear to be mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. xref , xref , xref , xref BRAF mutation may be more common in patients with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which itself has been associated with a positive prognosis, highlighting the complexity of these molecular pathways. xref "
sparser
"This observation may have clinical significance for MEDI-565, especially in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where tumors bearing KRAS or BRAF mutations have been associated with reduced response rates to treatment with the EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. xref Thus, although EGFR antibody-targeting therapy frequently encounters lower response rates in metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring these mutations, the patients may respond to MEDI-565 treatment."
sparser
"The RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway is a major signaling pathway that triggers cell proliferation upon EGFR ligand binding by activating the KRAS and BRAF genes."
sparser
"Although activating mutations of BRAF (BRAF V600E ) are found only in a small proportion of colon cancers, this poses a great challenge in the quest for a better outcome of the patients, in that BRAF mutations, like mutations in KRAS, are associated with resistance of colon cancer to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) [ xref – xref ]."
sparser
"Murine models of NSCLC have been described in which expression of mutated forms of K-ras, Egfr , or BRaf in the lung leads to the development of lung adenocarcinomas or pre-malignant lesions [ xref , xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and NRAS. 5 / 5
| 5
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend towards shorter overall survival compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
sparser
"Studies have identified several genetic alterations, including KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, which are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR agents."
sparser
"KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, but EGFR mutations are not (Fig.  xref c)."
sparser
"At present, KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF mutations are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic CRC, both in surgical and nonsurgical patients."
sparser
"The detection of a KRAS, NRAS or BRAF gene mutation was associated with a trend toward shorter duration of benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to when no mutations were detected by the MS test (Figure xref )."
ERK binds BRAF and KRAS. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"Based on our findings of a distinct ACF histology that is related to the underlying oncogenic alterations, we hypothesized that KRAS or BRAF mutations may be associated with differential ERK-1/2 activation."
sparser
"This is consistent with reports that primary mutations of BRAF and KRAS that increase ERK activity are associated with gefitinib resistance ( xref )."
sparser
"Interestingly, other work supports our general conclusions, in that IQGAP1 is known to directly interact directly with k-Ras, b-Raf, and Erk [ xref , xref , xref ]; thus serving as a scaffolding protein to promote Erk activity downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Ras activation."
sparser
"Importantly, the presence of either B-raf or K-ras mutation was marginally associated with the presence of cytoplasmic ERK expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.097), suggesting that the proportion of cytoplasmic ERK positivity is marginally higher in the mutated cases when compared to the unmutated ones."
BRAF binds KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA. 4 / 4
| 4
sparser
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any correlation between the molecular profile and clinical outcome of pTNM stage I CRCs and whether mutations in KRAS , BRAF , NRAS , and PIK3CA genes are associated with histopathological features in this group of tumors."
sparser
"It was widely recognized that mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA are significantly associated with a low response rate xref ."
sparser
"We optimized a 14-amplicon NGS panel to assess, in a consecutive cohort of 219 patients affected by mCRC, the presence and clinico-pathological associations of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens collected for diagnostics and research at the time of diagnosis."
sparser
"Of them, 36 patients did not exhibit mutations and 19 patients had one or more mutations: 16 patients had KRAS mutations (on exon 2: 14 patients and on exon 3-4: 2 patients), 1 NRAS mutation, 2 BRAF mutation and 4 PIK3CA mutations, associated with KRAS mutations in all of them (on exon 2: 3 patients and on exon 3-4: 1 patient)."
BRAF binds PBK and KRAS. 3 / 3
| 3
sparser
"Molecular analysis of sporadic CRCs in Group 2 showed that diffuse TOPK expression was associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations (p<0.001) and with poor outcome in patients with either mutation in univariate and multivariate analysis ( P =0.017)."
sparser
"In sporadic CRC, diffuse TOPK expression was associated with the presence of KRAS or BRAF mutation, underlining the involvement of TOPK in ERK/MAPK signalling."
sparser
"As a MAPKK-like protein, it is a downstream molecule of KRAS and BRAF , both of which are associated with diffuse expression of TOPK ( xref )."
| 3
sparser
"CFC syndrome is associated with mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2 , and KRAS [ xref ; xref ; xref ; xref ]."
sparser
"CFC is associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2."
sparser
"In landmark publications, Rodriguez-Viciana et al. [ xref ] and Niihori et al. [ xref ] showed that genetic mutations in genes participating with MEK signaling, including KRAS , BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 are associated with CFC syndrome."
BRAF binds KRAS and MSI. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, we validated the previously reported association of CIMP with BRAF mutations, MSI, and KRAS mutations."
sparser
"In MSI colorectal carcinomas, KRAS mutations are inversely associated to BRAF mutations, the latter being the most frequent [30,31] ."
BRAF binds EZH2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression."
sparser
"KRAS and BRAF genotypes were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression in our series."
BRAF binds ERBB2 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Oncogenic mutations in the KRAS [ 1 ], ERBB2 [ 3 ] and BRAF [ 4 ] have been frequently associated with AVC."
sparser
"Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is often associated with k-ras, b-raf, and ERBB2 mutations, while TP53 is rarely mutated [ xref ]."
BRAF binds KRAS and CRC. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"In addition, it has been demonstrated that BRAF and KRAS mutations are frequently associated with CRC and influence prognosis ( xref )."
sparser
"In conclusion, by incorporation of CMS classification, novel subtype-specific prognostic associations of the extensively studied KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations in primary CRC were indicated."
BRAF binds KRAS and RAF1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"It also strongly stimulated KRASBRAF and KRASCRAF interactions and inhibited RAF intramolecular interaction with potencies similar to GDC-0879 (Fig.  xref , f; Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
sparser
"Consistent with this, the interaction of KRAS G12V with BRAF and CRAF gatekeeper mutants was resistant to GDC-0879 (type I), but not to AZ-628 (type II) in BRET dose-response experiments (Fig.  xref and Supplementary Fig.  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and DCR. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Presence of K-RAS or B-RAF mutations were not statistically significantly associated with 8-week DCR ( P= 0.725 and P= 0.307, respectively)."
sparser
"In the patients with wild-type KRAS , the presence of the BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced DCR ( P  = 0.002; Table  xref )."
BRAF binds KRAS and MRC1. 2 / 2
| 2
sparser
"Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored."
sparser
"The association of BRAF , KRAS and MMR individually with prognosis has been studied in colon cancers by ourselves xref – xref and others xref , xref , xref – xref ."
BRAF binds CTNNB1 and KRAS. 2 / 2
| 2